Cardiocondyla batesii

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Cardiocondyla batesii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Cardiocondyla
Species group: batesii
Species: C. batesii
Binomial name
Cardiocondyla batesii
Forel, 1894

Cardiocondyla batesii casent0281806 p 1 high.jpg

Cardiocondyla batesii casent0281806 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Specimens have been collected from a number of anthropogenic habitats.

At a Glance • Brachypterous Queen  • Ergatoid male  • Limited invasive  


Seifert (2003) - A member of the Cardiocondyla batesii group. The C. batesii species complex forms a cluster of the similar taxa C. batesii, Cardiocondyla semirubra, and Cardiocondyla kushanica which are represented by specimens from remote geographic regions. The geographic sequence begins with C. batesii in Siberia, the Balearics, and N Africa, is followed by C. semirubra in Asia Minor, and is continued by C. kushanica in Afghanistan.

Seifert (2023) - Medium sized, CS 518 µm. Head moderately elongated, CL/CW 1.177. Postocular distance small, PoOc/CL 0.383. Scape moderately elongated, SL/CS 0.791. Eye large, EYE/CS 0.264. Median third of hind margin of head slightly concave. Frons moderately broad (FRS/CS 0.244), frontal notably converging immediately caudal of FRS level (FL/FR 1.077). Dorsal profile of promesonotum and of propodeum convex with a deep metanotal depression (Mgr/CS 3.82 %). Spines rather short and blunt, more triangular (SP/CS 0.117), their axis in profile deviating by about 43° from longitudinal axis of mesosoma, their bases rather distant (SPBA/CS 0.257). Petiole distinctly higher than wide (PeW/CS 0.282, PeH/CS 0.330); with characteristic profile, showing a short peduncle, a rather straight to weakly convex anterior face and an ample node with the anterior slope less steep than the caudal slope (about 60° respectively 75° relative to ventral profile). Petiole in dorsal view with elongated node that gradually merges with the anterior peduncle. Postpetiole wide (PpW/CS 0.533, PpW /PeW 1.89, PpH/CS 0.286), in dorsal view suggestively heard-shaped, with a concave anterior margin and convex sides; postpetiolar sternite completely flat. Median and paramedian clypeus smooth; lateral clypeus with 1–2 longitudinal rugulae. Dorsal head almost without longitudinal sculpture; weak longitudinal carinulae are present on and posterior of the frontal laminae. vertex with very shallow foveolae of 15–16 µm diameter; the margins of foveolae often breached by microrugulae running partially or entirely through the foveolae; the interspaces on average wider than foveolar diameter, shiny and with fragments of a very delicate microreticulum (Fig. 57). Dorsal mesosoma shiny, but finely microreticulate; meso- and metapleurae finely rugulose-reticulate. Waist segments very shiny, with barely visible microreticulum. Pubescence on gaster tergites moderately long and dense, PLg/CS 5.55 %, sqPDg 4.84. The typical color pattern is bicolored: dorsal head medium brown, mesosoma and waist light orange brown, gaster dark brown. This distinct color contrast may be lost in rarely occurring specimens with darker brown mesosoma.

The only species with sympatric occurrence related to Cardiocondyla batesii is Cardiocondyla nigra. C. batesii is strongly separable on the worker individual level by a PCA considering all the 14 morphometric characters shown in Tab. 3 as available for all 132 individuals (Fig. 112). All classifications, including the single C. batesii worker displaced by the PCA, are confirmed with p > 0.97 by a LOOCv-LDA reduced to the 10 characters CS, CL/CW, SL/CS, PoOc/CS, dFOv, PeW/CS, PeH/CS, PpH/CS, sqPDg, and PLg/CS in order to avoid character overfitting. The type series of C. nigra, Cardiocondyla nigra (as C. torretassoi) and Cardiocondyla bicoronata are allocated to the nigra cluster with p = 1.000 and the type series of C. batesii with p = 1.000 to the batesii cluster. A simpler way for a perfect separation, using six primary measurements given in mm, is offered by a linear discriminant:

  • D(6) = 63.22*CL-63.18*PoOc+55.89*SL+64.64*PeW-184.93*PeH-93.82*PpH-11.19
    • C. batesii: D(6) -2.459 ± 0.892 [-4.11, -0.53] n=37
    • C. nigra: D(6) 2.786 ± 1.038 [ 0.53, 5.20] n=95

Allopatric species with similarities to C. batesii are Cardiocondyla semirubra from Asia Minor and Cardiocondyla kushanica from Afghanistan. Non-overlapping morphometric data and structural differences provide arguments to treat these taxa as heterospecific in addition to the geographic argument (see these species for further details).

  • Seifert (2023), Figs. 109–113. Cardiocondyla obscurior; Fig. 109: head in dorsal view; Fig. 110: lateral view; Fig. 111: dorsal view; Fig. 112: head surface between inner eye margin and paramedian vertex; Fig. 113: frontolateral aspect of waist segments. Galapagos: Santa Cruz, 2012.11.19

Keys including this Species


Based on determined vouchers examined by Seifert (2023), distributed from N Morocco (6.8°W) east to NE Algeria (6.6°E) and from southern Spain north to 41.8°N. In southern Spain ascending to 930 m. Unverified records presented in include S Morocco, Tunisia and the Balearic Islands.

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 41.96194444° to 26.75°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Algeria (type locality), Balearic Islands, Iberian Peninsula, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.


Colonies may have more than one queen. New nests can be formed by fission.

Seifert (2023) - The biology of populations in southern Spain was investigated by Heinze et al. (2002) and Schrempf et al. (2005): Nests were found in cavities in the soil down to a depth of more than 1 m in very sunny and dry places. Colony density was high, with up to one nest per square meter. Nest populations contained 10–120 workers, were strictly monogynous and could contain 1–3 ergatoid males. Winged males were not observed. Workers never tolerated the presence of more than one inseminated, fertile gyne. Gynes mated in the nest in autumn, with mean mating frequencies of 1.52 ± 0.65 [1–3], and dispersed on foot to found their own colonies in spring. Gynes were dimorphic in mesosoma size which was correlated with wing length (brachyptery vs. macroptery). Yet, flight musculature was not sufficiently developed in both brachy- and macropterous gynes to allow flying. This reduced dispersal capacity explained the high inbreeding coefficient and the close genetic relatedness between queens and their mates and it was suggested that 83% of all matings were between brothers and sisters. As expected from local mate competition theory, sex ratios were extremely female biased, with more than 85% of all sexuals produced being young gynes.

Life History Traits

  • Queen number: monogynous (Seifert, 2023)
  • Mean colony size: 10-120 (Seifert, 2023)


Queens showed a remarkable variation in mesosoma size which appeared to be associated with a polymorphism in wing length (brachyptery vs. macroptery) (Heinze et al. 2002). Hundreds of young queens (both brachypterous and macropterous) were observed to leave their maternal nests, shed their wings, and disperse on foot. Both alate and dealate queens were found to be inseminated, suggesting that they had mated with ergatoid males in their maternal colonies before dispersal.

  • Seifert (2023), Figs. 54–57. Cardiocondyla batesii; Fig. 54: head in dorsal view; Fig. 55: lateral view; Fig. 56: dorsal view; Fig. 57: head surface between inner eye margin and paramedian vertex. Spain: Padul-4.5 km WNW, 2001.04.18


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • batesii. Cardiocondyla batesii Forel, 1894d: 17 (w.q.) ALGERIA.
    • Type-material: syntype workers, syntype queens (numbers not stated).
    • Type-locality: Algeria: Oran, Perrégaux, 29.iii.1893 (A. Forel).
    • Type-depository: MHNG.
    • Status as species: Forel, 1895d: 228; Emery, 1909a: 22; Karavaiev, 1912a: 4; Emery, 1922e: 125; Menozzi, 1922b: 327; Menozzi, 1932c: 94; Bernard, 1948: 141; Bernard, 1956c: 302 (in key); Ceballos, 1956: 308; Cagniant, 1968a: 143; Collingwood & Yarrow, 1969: 75; Cagniant, 1970a: 417; Collingwood, 1978: 86 (in key); Kugler, J. 1984: 12; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 56; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b: 276 (in key); Bolton, 1995b: 132; Radchenko, 1995b: 451; Espadaler, 1997b: 29; Collingwood & Prince, 1998: 16 (in key); Seifert, 2003a: 237 (redescription); Cagniant, 2006a: 198; Gómez & Espadler, 2006: 226; Petrov, 2006: 99 (in key); Legakis, 2011: 15; Borowiec, L. 2014: 45; Lebas, et al. 2016: 266.
    • Distribution: Algeria, Israel, Libya, Morocco, Portugal, Spain (+ Balearics), Tunisia.

Type Material

Seifert (2003) - 5 syntype workers labelled “C. Batesii, male type, Perregaux Algerie 29 III”, and 4 syntype gynes labelled “C. Batesii, 9 type, Perregaux Algerie 29 III”, both in Musee d'Histoire Naturelle Genève.



Seifert (2003) - Head moderately elongated, CL/CW 1.177. Postocular index small, PoOc/CL 0.383. Occipital margin slightly concave. Eyes large, EYE 0.264. Frontal carinae slightly converging immediately posterior of FRS level. Dorsal head almost without longitudinal sculpture; weak longitudinal carinulae present on and posterior of frontal laminae. Vertex with very shallow and simple foveolae of 14 - 16 mm diameter; interspaces shining and much wider than foveolar diameter, with very fine microrugulae surrounding foveolae (Fig. 17). Mesosoma and petiole dorsally shining, but finely microreticulate. Meso- and metapleurae microreticulate-rugulose. Propodeal spines rather well-developed and with rather blunt tips. Petiole with characteristic profile: short peduncle, weakly concave anterior face, and ample node which caudal slope is much steeper than the anterior one. Petiole in dorsal view with elongated node that gradually merges with anterior peduncle. Postpetiolar sternite completely flat. Typical colour pattern bicoloured: dorsal head medium brown, mesosoma and waist light-orange brown, gaster dark brown. This distinct colour contrast is lost in rare specimens with darker brown mesosoma.


Seifert (2003) - Head relatively short, CL/CW 1.165. Postocular index small, PoOc/CL 0.386. Occipital margin slightly concave. Head dorsally almost without longitudinal sculpture; weak longitudinal carinulae present on and posterior of frontal laminae and on lateral area of clypeus. Vertex with very shallow and simple foveolae of 14 - 16 mm diameter; interspaces much wider than foveolar diameter, shining, with fine microstructures as in worker. Dorsal area of mesosoma foveolate, interspaces between foveolae shining, wider than foveolar diameter; Mesosoma laterally shining, finely reticulate-carinulate. Propodeal spines rather strong. Petiole profile with short peduncle, weakly concave anterior face, and node produced caudad. Petiole node in dorsal view slightly longer than wide and gradually merging with anterior peduncle. Postpetiolar sternite without any flat bulge. Dorsal area of head dark brown; mesosoma and waist usually light-orange brown, occasionally dark brown; gaster blackish brown.


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Acosta, F. J., M. A. Morales, and J. M. Serrano. "Capacidad de transcripción de una mirmecocenosis en un medio adverso." Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 7 (1983): 151-158.
  • Asociacion Iberica de Mirmecologia. 2015. List of species collected during the Taxomara Lisboa 2015 Iberomyrmex 7: 44-45.
  • Bernard F. 1956. Révision des fourmis paléarctiques du genre Cardiocondyla Emery. Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afr. Nord 47: 299-306.
  • Bernard, F.. "Révision des Fourmis paléartiques du genre Cardiocondyla, Emery." Bulletin de la Société d' Histoire naturelle de l' Afrique du Nord 47 (7-8) (1956): 299-306.
  • Borowiec L. 2014. Catalogue of ants of Europe, the Mediterranean Basin and adjacent regions (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus (Wroclaw) 25(1-2): 1-340.
  • Cagniant, H.. "Deuxième liste de fourmis d'Algérie récoltées principalement en forêt. (1re partie)." Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse 105 (1970): 405-430.
  • Cagniant, H.. "Liste actualisee des fourmis du Maroc (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Myrmecologische Nachrichten 8 (2006): 193-200.
  • Cagniant, H.. Les peuplements de fourmis des forêts algériennes: écologie, biocénotique, essai biologique. Universite de Toulouse, 1973.
  • Carpintero S., J. Reyes-Lopes, and G. M. Luque. 2011. Ant community structure under Retama sphaerocarpa shrubs in a semi-arid environment. Entomological Science 14: 147–153.
  • Carpintero, S., A. Tinaut, J. Reyes, and L. Arias. "Estudio faunístico de los formícidos (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) del Parque Nacional de Doñana." Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 25 (1-2) (2001): 133-152.
  • Ceballos, G.. "Las tribus de los himenópteros de España. [FALTA ALGUNA PÁGINA]." Instituto Español de Entomología Madrid (1943): pp. 311-420.
  • Chemala A., M. Benhamacha, D. M. Ould el Hadj, F. Marniche, and S. Daoudi. 2017. A preliminary list of the ant fauna in Northeastern Sahara of Algeria (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 64(2): 146-154.
  • Collingwood, C. A.. "A provisional list of Iberian Formicidae with a key to the worker caste." EOS (Revista española de entomología) Nº LVII (1978): 65-95.
  • Delye, G., and J. L. Bonaric. "Fourmis du sud Marocain." Etude de certains milieux du Maroc et de leux evolution recente RCP 249 (1973).
  • Emery, C.. "Beiträge zur Monographie der Formiciden des paläarktischen Faunengebietes. (Hym.) Teil VI. Cardiocondyla, Solenopsis, Oligomyrmex." Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1909 (1909): 19-37.
  • Emery, C.. "Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]." en Wytsman, P. "Genera Insectorum" 174B (1922): 95-206.
  • Forel, A.. "Les Formicides de la Province d'Oran (Algérie)." Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 30 (1894): 1-45.
  • Guillen J. M. C., and A. Tinaut. 2012. Introduction to the study of the ants from the Region of Murcia (Spain) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Boln. Asoc. esp. Ent. 36 (1-2): 145-162.
  • Heinze, J., A. Schrempf, B. Seifert and A. Tinaut. 2002. Queen morphology and dispersal tactics in the ant, Cardiocondyla batesii. Insectes Sociaux 49: 129-132
  • Legakis Collection Database
  • Luque-García, G., J. L. Reyes-López, and J. Fernández-Haeger. "Estudio faunístico de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de la cuenca del río Guadiamar: Primeras aportaciones." Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 30 (2002): 153-159.
  • Menozzi, C.. "Missione scientifica del Prof. E. Zavattari nel Fezzan (1931). Hymenoptera-Formicidae." Bollettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 64 (1932): 93-95.
  • Mercier, J.-L.,J.-C. Lenoir, A. Eberhardt, S. Frohschammer, C. Williams and J. Heinze. 2007. Hammering, mauling, and kissing: stereotyped courtship behavior in Cardiocondyla ants. Insectes Sociaux 54(4):403-411.
  • Ordóñez-Urbano C., J. Reyes-López, and S. Carpintero-Ortega. 2007. Estudio faunísidos de los formícidos (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) asociados a los bosques de ribera en la Provincia de Córdoba (España). Primeras Aportaciones. Boletin Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 40: 367-375.
  • Ortiz, F. J.. "Formícidos del litoral granadino." Memoria de Licenciatura Universida (1985): 206 pp.
  • Radchenko A. G. 1996. Palaearctic ants of the genus Cardiocondyla Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Entomological Review (Washington) 75(7): 99-109.
  • Radchenko A. G. 1996. Palaearctic ants of the genus Cardiocondyla Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Entomological Review (Washington). 75(7): 99-109.
  • Reyes, J. L., and G. Luque. "Nuevos datos sobre el género Cardiocondyla (Hym.: Formicidae) en andalucía (Sur de la Península Ibérica)." Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 25 (3-4) (2001): 125-126.
  • Reyes, J. L.. "Descripción de Messor celiae nov. sp." Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 9 (1985): 255-261.
  • Reyes-López J., S. Carpintero-Ortega, and E. Retamoza-Muñoz. 2010. Adiciones a la relación de especies de hormigas (Hym., Formicidae) del Parque Natural del Cabo de Gata- Níjar (Almería, España) Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 34: 67-76.
  • Roig X., X. Espadaler, R. Cusco, F. Garcia, K. Gomez, S. Serrano, and R. Vila. 2008. Ants in gypsum areas. First record from Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula) of Cardiocondyla batesii Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) with an updated list of Catalan Formicidae. Boletin Sociedad Entomologica Aragonesa 42: 189-192.
  • Sanchez-Gil Jimeno R., and J. L. Reyes-Lopez. 2016. Study of ants species of the Sierra de San Carlos del Valle (Ciudad Real) and updating the provincial check list (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Boln. Asoc. esp. Ent. 40 (1-2): 93-109.
  • Santschi, F.. "Formicides nouveaux de l'Afrique Mineure (4e note suite)." Bulletin de la Société d' Histoire naturelle de l' Afrique du Nord 2 (1911): 78-85.
  • Santschi, F.. "Fourmis de Tunisie capturées en 1906." Revue Suisse de Zoologie 15 (1907): 305-334.
  • Schrempf, A., C. Reber, A. Tinaut, J. Heinze. 2005. Inbreeding and Local Mate Competition in the Ant Cardiocondyla batesii. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 57(5):502-510
  • Seifert B. 2003. The ant genus Cardiocondyla (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae) - a taxonomic revision of the C. elegans, C. bulgarica, C. batesii, C. nuda, C. shuckardi, C. stambuloffii, C. wroughtonii, C. emeryi, and C. minutior species groups. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien. B, Botanik, Zoologie 104: 203-338.
  • Seifert, B.. "The ant genus Cardiocondyla (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae) - a taxonomic revision of the C. elegans, C. bulgarica. C. batesii, C. nuda, C. shuckardi, C. stambuloffii, C. wroughtonii, C. emeryi, and C. minutior species groups." Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 104B (2003): 203-338.
  • Tinaut A. 2016. Ants of the Tejeda, Almijara and Alhama Mountains Natural Park (Andalusia, Spain) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Boln. Asoc. esp. Ent., 40 (1-2): 125-159.
  • Tinaut A., O. Mira, J. M. Vidal, and A. Aguirre-Segura. 2009. The ants of Cabo de Gata (Almería). Faunistics aspects (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Boln. Asoc. esp. Ent., 33 (1-2): 227-251.
  • Tinaut A., and F. J. Ortiz. 1988. Introduccion al conocimiento de las hormigas de la provincia de Almeria (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Publicaciones del Instituto de Estudios Almerienses. Boletín (Ciencias) 8: 223-231.
  • de Haro, Andrés, and C. A. Collingwood. "Prospección mirmecológica por Andalucia." Boletín de la Estación Central de Ecología 6 (12) (1977): 85-90.
  • de Haro, Andrés, and C. A. Collingwood. "Prospección mirmecológica por la península Tingitana al norte del Rif (Marruecos)." Orsis (Organismes i Sistemes) 12 (1997): 93-99.