AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Camponotini
Genus: Polyrhachis
Subgenus: Hemioptica
Roger, 1862
Type species
Hemioptica scissa, now Polyrhachis scissa
3 species

Polyrhachis scissa casent0281343 p 1 high.jpg

Polyrhachis scissa casent0281343 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

This is currently a subgenus of Polyrhachis. Please see Polyrhachis for further information.

For identification of species belonging to this subgenus see Key to Polyrhachis (Hemioptica) species.


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • HEMIOPTICA [subgenus of Polyrhachis]
    • Hemioptica Roger, 1862a: 238. Type-species: Hemioptica scissa, by monotypy.
    • Hemioptica subgenus of Polyrhachis: Mayr, 1872: 138.
    • Hemioptica junior synonym of Polyrhachis: Forel, 1878: 368.
    • Hemioptica revived status as genus: Dalla Torre, 1893: 271; Emery, 1925b: 209.
    • Hemioptica subgenus of Polyrhachis: Dorow & Kohout, 1995: 95; Bolton, 1995b: 31; Dorow, 1995: 29.


Distinctive Characteristics of the genus (Dorow and Kohout 1995):

The subgenus Hemioptica can be defined within the genus Polyrhachis by the possession of following characters:

1. Eyes posteriorly truncate in Polyrhachis boltoni and Polyrhachis scissa.

2. Sides of head with sharply defined longitudinal carinae separating the genae from the ventral parts of the head.

3. Anterior clypeal margin arcuate, entire.

4. Pronotum convex, shield-shaped, extending posteriorly and concealing the median portion of mesonotal dorsum.

5. Mesosoma lacking any traces of armament.

6. The metanotal groove deeply impressed and elaborate.


  • Ashmead, W. H. 1905c. A skeleton of a new arrangement of the families, subfamilies, tribes and genera of the ants, or the superfamily Formicoidea. Can. Entomol. 37: 381-384 (page 384, Hemioptica in Camponotinae, Polyrhachidini; Hemioptica as genus)
  • Bolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. (page 31, Hemioptica as subgenus of Polyrhachis)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 123, Hemioptica as subgenus of Polyrhachis)
  • Cantone S. 2018. Winged Ants, The queen. Dichotomous key to genera of winged female ants in the World. The Wings of Ants: morphological and systematic relationships (self-published).
  • Chapman, J. W.; Capco, S. R. 1951. Check list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Asia. Monogr. Inst. Sci. Technol. Manila 1: 1-327 (page 255, Hemioptica as genus)
  • Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 271, Hemioptica in Camponotinae; Hemioptica as genus)
  • Donisthorpe, H. 1943g. A list of the type-species of the genera and subgenera of the Formicidae. [part]. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 11(10): 617-688 (page 649, Hemioptica as genus)
  • Dorow, W. H. O. 1995. Revision of the ant genus Polyrhachis Smith, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) on subgenus level with keys, checklist of species and bibliography. Cour. Forschungsinst. Senckenb. 185: 1-113 (page 29, Hemioptica as subgenus of Polyrhachis)
  • Dorow, W. H. O.; Kohout, R. J. 1995. A review of the subgenus Hemioptica Roger of the genus Polyrhachis Fr. Smith with description of a new species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). Zool. Meded. (Leiden) 69: 93-104 (page 95, Hemioptica as subgenus of Polyrhachis)
  • Emery, C. 1895l. Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. Geogr. Biol. Tiere 8: 685-778 (page 772, Hemioptica in Camponotinae, Camponotini; Hemioptica as genus)
  • Emery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183: 1-302 (page 209, Hemioptica as genus)
  • Forel, A. 1878c. Études myrmécologiques en 1878 (première partie) avec l'anatomie du gésier des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 15: 337-392 (page 368, Hemioptica as junior synonym of Polyrhachis)
  • Forel, A. 1915b. Results of Dr. E. Mjöbergs Swedish Scientific Expeditions to Australia 1910-13. 2. Ameisen. Ark. Zool. 9(1 16: 1-119 (page 107, Hemioptica as subgenus of Polyrhachis)
  • Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 251, Hemioptica as subgenus of Polyrhachis)
  • Klimeš, P., Drescher, J., Buchori, D., Hidayat, P., Nazarreta, R., Potocký, P., Rimandai, M., Scheu, S., Matos-Maraví, P. 2022. Uncovering cryptic diversity in the enigmatic ant genus Overbeckia and insights into the phylogeny of Camponotini (Hymenoptera:Formicidae:Formicinae). Invertebrate Systematics, 36(6), 557-579 (doi:10.1071/is21067).
  • Mayr, G. 1862. Myrmecologische Studien. Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 12: 649-776 (page 769, Hemioptica in Formicinae [Formicidae]; Hemioptica as genus)
  • Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. (page 6, Hemioptica in Formicinae [Formicidae]; Hemioptica as genus)
  • Mayr, G. 1872. Formicidae Borneenses collectae a J. Doria et O. Beccari in territorio Sarawak annis 1865-1867. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 2: 133-155 (page 138, Hemioptica as subgenus of Polyrhachis)
  • Roger, J. 1862a. Einige neue exotische Ameisen-Gattungen und Arten. Berl. Entomol. Z. 6: 233-254 (page 238, Hemioptica as genus)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1910b. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. (page 144, Hemioptica in Camponotinae, Camponotini; Hemioptica as genus)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1911c. Three formicid names which have been overlooked. Science (N. Y.) (n.s.) 33: 858-860 (page 860, Hemioptica as subgenus of Myrma)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1911g. A list of the type species of the genera and subgenera of Formicidae. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 21: 157-175 (page 164, Hemioptica as subgenus of Myrma)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 701, Hemioptica as subgenus of Polyrhachis)