Neivamyrmex swainsonii

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Neivamyrmex swainsonii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Dorylinae
Genus: Neivamyrmex
Species: N. swainsonii
Binomial name
Neivamyrmex swainsonii
(Shuckard, 1840)

Neivamyrmex swainsonii casent0104748 profile 1.jpg

Neivamyrmex swainsonii casent0104748 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label


Due to its large size and relative abundance N. swainsonii is easily one of North America’s most conspicuous army ants.

Photo Gallery

  • Army ant males are most commonly seen at night. They sometimes end up at lights as they disperse on wing from their natal colonies. This army ant, Neivamyrmex swainsonii, is a broadly-distributed species found from the southern United States to northern Argentina. Peña Blanca Lake, Arizona, USA. Photo by Alex Wild.


Jack Longino:

Posterior face of propodeum straight, not concave, as long or longer than dorsal face; eye without distinct convex cornea, reduced to yellow speck below cuticle; apex of scape does not exceed eye level; anteroventral tooth of petiole large and triangular; face with sparse small puncta; basal tooth of mandible moderate to small; mesosoma of largest worker greater than 1.2mm; propodeal suture weakly impressed; dorsa of promesonotum and propodeum forming single flat surface; petiole in lateral view subquadrate, not pedunculate.

Jack Longino, the junior synonym Labidus mexicanus:

Posterior face of propodeum straight, not concave, about as long as dorsal face; eye with distinct convex cornea; color dark red brown to black.

Similar species: Neivamyrmex punctaticeps.

Keys including this Species


United States: Kansas, Louisiana and Texas, west to California; Mexico: border states south to Chiapas and Yucatán; south to Argentina.

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 36.29672° to -37.12°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Nearctic Region: United States.
Neotropical Region: Argentina, Brazil (type locality), Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.


The following notes are provided by Hill (2007) under the name N. fallax (a junior synonym of N. swainsonii):

On 27 June 2006, while on a collecting trip in west Texas, a colony of N. fallax was observed raiding a colony of Solenopsis xyloni. These observations were made just outside of Alpine, in Brewster County, Texas (30°20’46”N 103°41’39”W) at 1,548 m, behind a pavilion along a fencerow separating a hotel parking lot and a pasture. The activity occurred in an area measuring approximately 1x1.5 m that consisted of mostly bare soil and gravel with some forbs and Cynodon dactylon (L,) Pers (Poaceae) (Bermuda grass). The observations were made between 7:55 P.M.-9:10 P.M., and the temperature was 28.8°C.

While collections of ants were being made in the area, a large number of S. xyloni were observed, apparently relocating their colony from an old nest site to a new one approximately one meter away. Many N. fallax workers were emerging from three holes in the ground between these two locations, whereupon they attacked the S. xyloni workers and took their brood (eggs and pupa). In most cases, the S. xyloni workers only minimally defended their brood, before dropping it and running away. In other cases, the N. fallax took the brood from the mandibles of the S. xyloni workers after a brief skirmish. Several S. xyloni workers carrying brood apparently tried to evade the onslaught of their attackers by climbing onto a small forb. When a N. fallax worker ventured up the forb, the S. xyloni moved further up the plant until they were at the top. When the N. fallax neared them, the Solenopsis dropped their brood, and fell to the ground. The N. fallax workers also were observed also attacking male and female S. xyloni alates and carrying them underground after they were subdued. One S. xyloni worker also was observed being carried underground. Additionally, several N. fallax workers were seen entering and exiting the S. xyloni colony, but none of those exiting were observed carrying anything.

During the course of these observations, the movement trail of the Solenopsis became more obtuse as the Neivamyrmex pushed further into their ranks. A couple of workers of two other ant species, Pogonomyrmex rugosus and Novomessor cockerelli, were also moving throughout the area. The S. xyloni attacked both of these larger species when encountering them with seemingly greater aggressiveness than they exhibited for the more similar sized N. fallax, and in one case were able to kill one of the P. rugosus workers.

The observations ceased near sundown. The next morning the site was visited again, but there was no sign of either the Neivamyrmex or the Solenopsis. It would be interesting to know whether the Solenopsis were already moving their colony at the time and the Neivamyrmex took advantage of their vulnerability, or if the Solenopsis were moving because the Neivamyrmex already had attacked their original colony.

Jack Longino: I collected workers of this species under a rock on the ridge between Playa Naranjo and Playa Nancite in Santa Rosa National Park, an area of scrubby vegetation and grasses in a relatively xeric habitat. Ivette Perfecto collected workers in a coffee farm near Heredia. Curiously, males are known from La Selva Biological Station in the Atlantic lowlands and Wilson Botanical Garden in the southern mountains. During an 18-month program of sampling using blacklight traps at La Selva, as part of the ALAS project, males occurred in three different samples, in the months of March and May.

Flight Period

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec




MCZ-ENT00029429 Neivamyrmex fallax hal.jpgMCZ-ENT00029429 Neivamyrmex fallax hal.jpgMCZ-ENT00029429 Neivamyrmex fallax had.jpgMCZ-ENT00029429 Neivamyrmex fallax lbs.jpg
. Owned by Museum of Comparative Zoology.

Images from AntWeb

Neivamyrmex swainsonii casent0102763 head 1.jpgNeivamyrmex swainsonii casent0102763 profile 1.jpgNeivamyrmex swainsonii casent0102763 dorsal 1.jpgNeivamyrmex swainsonii casent0102763 label 1.jpg
Worker. Specimen code casent0102763. Photographer Jen Fogarty, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by CAS, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Neivamyrmex swainsonii casent0102764 head 1.jpgNeivamyrmex swainsonii casent0102764 profile 1.jpgNeivamyrmex swainsonii casent0102764 dorsal 1.jpgNeivamyrmex swainsonii casent0102764 label 1.jpg
Worker. Specimen code casent0102764. Photographer Jen Fogarty, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by CAS, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Neivamyrmex swainsonii casent0104748 head 1.jpgNeivamyrmex swainsonii casent0104748 profile 1.jpgNeivamyrmex swainsonii casent0104748 dorsal 1.jpgNeivamyrmex swainsonii casent0104748 label 1.jpg
Worker. Specimen code casent0104748. Photographer April Nobile, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by CAS, San Francisco, CA, USA.


Images from AntWeb

Neivamyrmex swainsonii casent0005336 head 1.jpgNeivamyrmex swainsonii casent0005336 profile 1.jpgNeivamyrmex swainsonii casent0005336 dorsal 1.jpgNeivamyrmex swainsonii casent0005336 dorsal 2.jpgNeivamyrmex swainsonii casent0005336 label 1.jpg
Male (alate). Specimen code casent0005336. Photographer April Nobile, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by UCDC, Davis, CA, USA.


MCZ-ENT00022855 Eciton arizonense hef.jpgMCZ-ENT00022855 Eciton arizonense hal.jpgMCZ-ENT00022855 Eciton arizonense had.jpgMCZ-ENT00022855 Eciton arizonense lbs.jpg
. Owned by Museum of Comparative Zoology.


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • swainsonii. Labidus swainsonii Shuckard, 1840a: 201 (m.) BRAZIL (no state data).
    • Type-material: holotype male.
    • Type-locality: Brazil: (no further data) (Swainson).
    • [Note: Borgmeier, 1955: 454, nominates Bahia, São Salvador as type-locality.]
    • Type-depository: BMNH.
    • Combination in Eciton: Forel, 1895b: 121;
    • combination in E. (Acamatus): Emery, 1900a: 187;
    • combination in E. (Neivamyrmex): Borgmeier, 1948b: 462;
    • combination in Neivamyrmex: Borgmeier, 1953: 15.
    • Status as species: Westwood, 1842: 76; Smith, F. 1859b: 8; Roger, 1863b: 42; Mayr, 1863: 425; Dalla Torre, 1893: 6; Forel, 1895b: 121; Forel, 1899c: 29; Emery, 1900a: 178 (in key); Emery, 1910b: 27; Santschi, 1916e: 370; Gallardo, 1920: 379; Borgmeier, 1923: 50; Wheeler, W.M. 1925a: 2; Santschi, 1931e: 274; Borgmeier, 1936: 61; Borgmeier, 1948b: 462; Borgmeier, 1953: 16; Borgmeier, 1955: 454 (redescription); Smith, M.R. 1958c: 109; Kempf, 1972a: 160; Watkins, 1972: 352 (in key); Hunt & Snelling, 1975: 21; Watkins, 1976: 24 (in key); Smith, D.R. 1979: 1332; Snelling, R.R. & George, 1979: 34; Watkins, 1982: 214 (in key); Watkins, 1985: 484 (in key); Bolton, 1995b: 291; Palacio, 1999: 160 (in key); Mackay & Mackay, 2002: 65; Ward, 2005: 62; Wild, 2007b: 26; Snelling, G.C. & Snelling, 2007: 490; Branstetter & Sáenz, 2012: 254; Palacio, 2019: 621.
    • Senior synonym of arizonense: Borgmeier, 1955: 454; Smith, M.R. 1958c: 109; Kempf, 1972a: 160; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1332; Snelling, R.R. & George, 1979: 34; Bolton, 1995b: 291; Snelling, G.C. & Snelling, 2007: 490.
    • Senior synonym of fallax: Snelling, G.C. & Snelling, 2007: 490.
    • Senior synonym of mexicanus: Snelling, G.C. & Snelling, 2007: 490.
    • Distribution: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Trinidad, U.S.A., Venezuela.
  • arizonense. Eciton (Acamatus) arizonense Wheeler, W.M. 1908e: 414, pl. 26, fig. 5 (m.) U.S.A. (Texas, New Mexico, Arizona).
    • Type-material: syntype males (number not stated).
    • Type-localities U.S.A.: Texas, Brownsville (C. Schaeffer), Texas, Austin, (M. Holliday), New Mexico, Las Cruces (T.D.A. Cockerell), Arizona, Nogales, and 15.vii. (E.J. Oslar).
    • Type-depositories: AMNH, MCZC.
    • Combination in E. (Neivamyrmex): Smith, M.R. 1942c: 581;
    • combination in Neivamyrmex: Borgmeier, 1953: 18.
    • Status as species: Emery, 1910b: 25; Wheeler, W.M. 1910g: 562; Essig, 1926: 869; Cole, 1937a: 98; Smith, M.R. 1938b: 158; Smith, M.R. 1942c: 581 (redescription); Creighton, 1950a: 69; Smith, M.R. 1951a: 780.
    • Subspecies of swainsonii: Borgmeier, 1953: 19.
    • Junior synonym of swainsonii: Borgmeier, 1955: 454; Smith, M.R. 1958c: 109; Kempf, 1972a: 160; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1332; Snelling, R.R. & George, 1979: 34; Bolton, 1995b: 287; Snelling, G.C. & Snelling, 2007: 490.
  • fallax. Neivamyrmex fallax Borgmeier, 1953: 48, figs. 31, 33 (w.) U.S.A. (Texas, Arizona).
    • Type-material: holotype worker, 14 paratype workers.
    • Type-locality: holotype U.S.A: Texas, Victoria, 17.i.1933 (L.C. Murphree); paratypes; 10 workers with same data, 1 worker Texas, Tucson (F. Silvestri), 3 workers Louisiana, Ringgold, i.1944 (M. Tocke).
    • Type-depositories: USNM (holotype); MZSP, USNM (paratypes).
    • Status as species: Borgmeier, 1955: 425 (redescription); Smith, M.R. 1958c: 109; Watkins, 1971: 94 (in key); Watkins, 1972: 350 (in key); Hunt & Snelling, 1975: 20; Watkins, 1976: 14 (in key); Smith, D.R. 1979: 1330; Watkins, 1982: 211 (in key); Watkins, 1985: 483 (in key); Bolton, 1995b: 288; Mackay & Mackay, 2002: 56.
    • Junior synonym of swainsonii: Snelling, G.C. & Snelling, 2007: 490.
  • mexicanus. Labidus mexicanus Smith, F. 1859b: 7 (m.) MEXICO (Veracruz).
    • Type-material: holotype male.
    • Type-locality: Mexico: Orizaba (no collector’s name).
    • Type-depository: BMNH.
    • [Note: Borgmeier, 1955: 374, says the holotype is probably lost; it could not be found in BMNH or OXUM.]
    • Forel, 1899c: 27 (w.); Reichensperger, 1939: 297 (q.).
    • Combination in Eciton: Dalla Torre, 1893: 4;
    • combination in E. (Labidus): Emery, 1895c: 260;
    • combination in E. (Acamatus): Emery, 1900a: 187;
    • combination in E. (Neivamyrmex): Smith, M.R. 1942c: 544;
    • combination in Neivamyrmex: Borgmeier, 1953: 8.
    • Status as species: Roger, 1863b: 42; Mayr, 1863: 425; Cresson, 1872: 194; Emery, 1895c: 260, Emery, 1900a: 177 (in key); Wheeler, W.M. 1908e: 414; Emery, 1910b: 26; Wheeler, W.M. 1910g: 562; Smith, M.R. 1931a: 16; Smith, M.R. 1931b: 297; Cole, 1937a: 98.
    • Junior synonym of pilosus: Smith, M.R. 1931b: 295; Smith, M.R. 1942c: 544; Creighton, 1950a: 75; Smith, M.R. 1951a: 781.
    • Subspecies of pilosus: Borgmeier, 1936: 59; Borgmeier, 1939: 416; Borgmeier, 1953: 14, 17; Borgmeier, 1955: 374 (redescription); Smith, M.R. 1958c: 109; Kempf, 1972a: 158; Watkins, 1972: 352 (in key); Smith, D.R. 1979: 1332; Bolton, 1995b: 290; Mackay & Mackay, 2002: 64; Ward, 2005: 62.
    • Junior synonym of swainsonii: Snelling, G.C. & Snelling, 2007: 490.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Snelling and Snelling (2007) - We have determined that N. fallax is the worker of N. swainsonii. The evidence for this association is scanty: it is based on a worker of N. fallax found attached to the leg of a male collected in Arizona. Although throughout the United States and Mexico the ranges of these two taxa overlap nicely, N. fallax is unknown south of Guatemala.



Smith (1942), for arizonense - Length 12-13 mm.

Head approximately twice as broad as long. Eye large, strongly convex, protuberant. Ocelli large, placed on high protuberance above general surface of head; from above, appearing as if on a distinctly elevated, transverse ridge; lateral ocellus less than its greatest diameter from inner margin of eye. Frontal carinae elevated, sharply margined, slightly converging posteriorly, with deep groove between them. Antenna short; scape robust, very noticeably wider than base of funiculus, but slightly shorter than combined length of first 4 funicular segments; funiculus distinctly tapering from base to apex. Clypeus excised. Mandible flattened dorsoventrally, very long, strongly curved, especially toward apex, and tapering to form an extremely acute point. Head, from above, remarkably broad and short, not prolonged behind eyes. Thorax very robust, strongly protrudirrg above dorsal surface of head. Mesonotum with distinct anteromedian and parapsidal lines. Epinotum, in profile, concave. Tarsal claws toothed. Petiole with a protuberance beneath. Apex of seventh gastric sternum with 3 teeth; a short, somewhat blunt, median tooth, and 2 rather acute lateral teeth. Paramere, in profile, abruptly enlarged toward apex, and with a dorsal emargination which varies considerably with regard to depth and breadth.

Head and anterior border of each gastric segment smooth and shining; remainder of body more opaque. In some lights, various parts of the body have a glabrous appearance in spite of the dense hairs covering the surface. Thorax, petiole, and gaster very finely punctulate.

Hairs yellowish, rather dense and somewhat appressed; usually longer on lower surface of body, epinotum, petiole, and tip of gaster.

Yellowish brown to reddish brown, with darker head and seventh gastric sternum. Wings distinctly yellowish, pilose, with light-brown or yellowish-brown veins and stigma.

Type Material

Smith (1942) arizonense: Nogales, Ariz.; E. J. Oslar. Male cotypes Museum of Comparative Zoology


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Adams B. J., S. A. Schnitzer, and S. P. Yanoviak. 2019. Connectivity explains local ant community structure in a Neotropical forest canopy: a large-scale experimental approach. Ecology 100(6): e02673.
  • Baroni Urbani C. 1977. Katalog der Typen von Formicidae (Hymenoptera) der Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Basel (2. Teil). Mitt. Entomol. Ges. Basel (n.s.) 27: 61-102.
  • Bodner G. 2005. Invertebrates of the Peloncillo Region: Richness and Mystery. In Bodner, G.S., J. Atchley Montoya, R. Hanson, and W. Anderson, Editors. 2006. Natural heritage of the Peloncillo Mountain Region: a synthesis of science. World Wildlife Fund and Sky Island Alliance, Tucson, AZ. Available at
  • Borgmeier T. 1936. Sobre algumas formigas dos generos Eciton e Cheliomyrmex (Hym. Formicidae). Archivos do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal (Rio de Janeiro) 3: 51-68.
  • Borgmeier T. 1948. Einige Ameisen aus Argentinien (Hym. Formicidae). Revista de Entomologia (Rio de Janeiro) 19: 459-471.
  • Borgmeier T. 1953. Vorarbeiten zu einer Revision der neotropischen Wanderameisen. Studia Entomologica 2: 1-51.
  • Borgmeier T. 1955. Die Wanderameisen der neotropischen Region. Studia Entomologica 3: 1-720.
  • Cokendolpher J. C., and O. F. Francke. 1990. The ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of western Texas. Part II. Subfamilies Ecitoninae, Ponerinae, Pseudomyrmecinae, Dolichoderinae, and Formicinae. Special Publications, the Museum. Texas Tech University 30:1-76.
  • Cokendolpher J.C., Reddell J.R., Taylor S.J, Krejca J.K., Suarez A.V. and Pekins C.E. 2009. Further ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from caves of Texas [Hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicdae) adicionales de cuevas de Texas]. Texas Memorial Museum Speleological Monographs, 7. Studies on the cave and endogean fauna of North America, V. Pp. 151-168
  • Cover S. P., and R. A. Johnson. 20011. Checklist of Arizona Ants. Downloaded on January 7th at
  • Cuezzo, F. 1998. Formicidae. Chapter 42 in Morrone J.J., and S. Coscaron (dirs) Biodiversidad de artropodos argentinos: una perspectiva biotaxonomica Ediciones Sur, La Plata. Pages 452-462.
  • Dash S. T. and L. M. Hooper-Bui. 2008. Species diversity of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Louisiana. Conservation Biology and Biodiversity. 101: 1056-1066
  • Dattilo W. et al. 2019. MEXICO ANTS: incidence and abundance along the Nearctic-Neotropical interface. Ecology
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-280
  • Emery C. 1900. Nuovi studi sul genere Eciton. Memorie della Reale Accademia delle Scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna (5)8: 173-188
  • Emery C. 1910. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Dorylinae. Genera Insectorum 102: 1-34.
  • Esteves F. A., C. R. F. Brandao, and L. P. Prado. 2011. The type specimens of Dorylomorph ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae: Aenictinae, Ecitoninae, Cerapachyinae, Leptanilloidinae) deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia 51(22): 341-397.
  • Feitosa, R.M., R.R. Hora, J.H.C. Delabie, J. Valenzuela and D. Fresneau. 2008. A new social parasite in the ant genus Ectatomma F. Smith (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ectatomminae). Zootaxa 1713:47-52.
  • Fernandes, P.R. XXXX. Los hormigas del suelo en Mexico: Diversidad, distribucion e importancia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).
  • Fernández, F. and S. Sendoya. 2004. Lista de las hormigas neotropicales. Biota Colombiana Volume 5, Number 1.
  • Gallardo A. 1920. Las hormigas de la República Argentina. Subfamilia Dorilinas. Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 30: 281-410.
  • General D.M. & Thompson L.C. 2007. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Arkansas Post National Memorial. Journal of the Arkansas Acaedemy of Science. 61: 59-64
  • General D.M. & Thompson L.C. 2008. New Distributional Records of Ants in Arkansas for 2008. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science. 63: 182-184
  • Hill J. G. 2007. Observations of Neivamyrmex fallax Borgmier and Solenopsis xyloni McCook (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Marginalia Insecta 2: 1
  • INBio Collection (via Gbif)
  • Johnson R. Personnal Database. Accessed on February 5th 2014 at
  • Johnson, R.A. and P.S. Ward. 2002. Biogeography and endemism of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Baja California, Mexico: a first overview. Journal of Biogeography 29:1009–1026/
  • Kempf W. W. 1978. A preliminary zoogeographical analysis of a regional ant fauna in Latin America. 114. Studia Entomologica 20: 43-62.
  • Kempf, W.W. 1972. Catalago abreviado das formigas da regiao Neotropical (Hym. Formicidae) Studia Entomologica 15(1-4).
  • Kusnezov N. 1962. El vuelo nupcial de las hormigas. Acta Zoologica Lilloana 18: 385-442.
  • Kusnezov N. 1978. Hormigas argentinas: clave para su identificación. Miscelánea. Instituto Miguel Lillo 61:1-147 + 28 pl.
  • LeBrun E. G., R. M. Plowes, and L. E. Gilbert. 2015. Imported fire ants near the edge of their range: disturbance and moisture determine prevalence and impact of an invasive social insect. Journal of Animal Ecology,81: 884–895.
  • Longino J. T. 2013. Ants of Nicargua. Consulted on 18 Jan 2013.
  • Longino J. et al. ADMAC project. Accessed on March 24th 2017 at
  • Mackay W. P., and E. E. Mackay. 2002. The ants of New Mexico (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 400 pp.
  • Maes, J.-M. and W.P. MacKay. 1993. Catalogo de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de Nicaragua. Revista Nicaraguense de Entomologia 23.
  • O'Keefe S. T., J. L. Cook, T. Dudek, D. F. Wunneburger, M. D. Guzman, R. N. Coulson, and S. B. Vinson. 2000. The Distribution of Texas Ants. The Southwestern Entomologist 22: 1-92.
  • Philpott, S.M., P. Bichier, R. Rice, and R. Greenberg. 2007. Field testing ecological and economic benefits of coffee certification programs. Conservation Biology 21: 975-985.
  • Quiroz-Robledo, L.N. and J. Valenzuela-Gonzalez. 2006. Las hormigas Ecitoninae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de Morelos, México. Revista Biologia Tropical 54(2):531-552
  • Reddell J. R., and J. C. Cokendolpher. 2001. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from caves of Belize, Mexico, and California and Texas (U.S.A.) Texas. Texas Memorial Museum Speleological Monographs 5: 129-154.
  • Salinas P. J. 2010. Catalogue of the ants of the Táchira State, Venezuela, with notes on their biodiversity, biogeography and ecology (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Amblyioponinae, Ponerinae, Proceratiinae, Myrmicinae, Ecitoninae, Formicinae, Pseudomyrmecinae, Dolichoderinae). Boletín de la SEA 47: 315-328.
  • Santschi F. 1916. Formicides sudaméricains nouveaux ou peu connus. Physis (Buenos Aires). 2: 365-399.
  • Santschi F. 1931. Contribution à l'étude des fourmis de l'Argentine. Anales de la Sociedad Cientifica Argentina. 112: 273-282.
  • Smith M. A., W. Hallwachs, D. H. Janzen. 2014. Diversity and phylogenetic community structure of ants along a Costa Rican elevational gradient. Ecography 37(8): 720-731.
  • Smith M. R. 1936. A list of the ants of Texas. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 44: 155-170.
  • Smith M. R. 1942. The legionary ants of the United States belonging to Eciton subgenus Neivamyrmex Borgmeier. American Midland Naturalist 27: 537-590.
  • Snelling G. C. and R. R. Snelling. 2007. New synonymy, new species, new keys to Neivamyrmex army ants of the United States. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80: 459-550
  • Vasquez-Bolanos M. 2011. Checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Mexico. Dugesiana 18(1): 95-133.
  • Vittar, F. 2008. Hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de la Mesopotamia Argentina. INSUGEO Miscelania 17(2):447-466
  • Vittar, F., and F. Cuezzo. "Hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de la provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina." Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina (versión On-line ISSN 1851-7471) 67, no. 1-2 (2008).
  • Vásquez-Bolaños M. 2011. Lista de especies de hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) para México. Dugesiana 18: 95-133
  • Warren, L.O. and E.P. Rouse. 1969. The Ants of Arkansas. Bulletin of the Agricultural Experiment Station 742:1-67
  • Watkins II, J.F. 1982.The army ants of Mexico (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ecitoninae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 55(2): 197-247.
  • Watkins J. F., II 1976. The identification and distribution of New World army ants (Dorylinae: Formicidae). Waco, Texas: Baylor University Press, 102 pp
  • Watkins J. F., II 1985. The identification and distribution of the army ants of the United States of America (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ecitoninae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 58: 479-502.
  • Wheeler G. C., and J. Wheeler J. 1989. A checklist of the ants of Oklahoma. Prairie Naturalist 21: 203-210.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1908. The ants of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. (Part I.). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 24: 399-485.
  • Wheeler, G.C. and J. Wheeler. 1985. A checklist of Texas ants. Prairie Naturalist 17:49-64.
  • Wild, A. L. "A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Zootaxa 1622 (2007): 1-55.
  • do Nascimento, I.C. 2006. Fenologia dos Voos de Acasalamento em Formigas Tropicais