Pheidole carapuna

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Pheidole carapuna
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Attini
Genus: Pheidole
Species: P. carapuna
Binomial name
Pheidole carapuna
Mann, 1916

Pheidole carapuna casent0612022 p 1 high.jpg

Pheidole carapuna casent0612022 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Synonyms

In Costa Rica, Longino (1997) found carapuna in lowland rainforest, where it nests and forages on and near the forest floor. In Costa Rica's Corcovado National Park, he discovered a nest under the bark of a rotten log, and elsewhere observed workers recruiting at night to a dead tabanid fly on a vertical tree trunk close to the ground. At Cuzco Amazonico, near Puerto Maldonado, Peru, Stefan Cover and John E. Tobin found a colony in mature rainforest, nesting in humus on top of a rotten log. Similarly, Mark Moffett collected a colony from a rotten log at Saul, French Guiana. (Wilson 2003)

Identification

See the description in the nomenclature section.

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Amazonian Brazil and Peru north to Guyana, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and the southern Pacific lowlands of Costa Rica and Honduras. (Wilson 2003)

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Bolivia, Brazil (type locality), Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Peru (type locality), Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela.


Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Castes

Worker

Minor

Major

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • carapuna. Pheidole (Pheidole) carapuna Mann, 1916: 432, pl. 3, fig. 22 (s.w.q.) BRAZIL.
    • Senior synonym of chaquimayensis: Wilson, 2003: 672.
    • Senior synonym of tristicolus: Longino, 2019: 30.
  • chaquimayensis. Pheidole carapuna var. chaquimayensis Wheeler, W.M. 1925a: 20 (s.m.) PERU.
    • Junior synonym of carapuna: Wilson, 2003: 672.
  • tristicula. Pheidole tristicula Wilson, 2003: 768, figs. (s.w.) PERU.
    • Junior synonym of carapuna: Longino, 2019: 30.

Type Material

  • Pheidole carapuna: Lectotype (designated by Wilson, 2003), worker (major), Rondonia: Madeira-Mamore rail track, km 284, Brazil, W. M. Mann, Museum of Comparative Zoology.
  • Pheidole carapuna: Paralectotype (designated by Wilson, 2003), worker (minor), Rondonia: Madeira-Mamore rail track, km 284, Brazil, W. M. Mann, Museum of Comparative Zoology.
  • Pheidole carapuna chaquimayensis: Syntype, worker (major), male, Chaquimayo, Peru, Dec 20th, N. Holmgren; under bark of a mouldering stem.
  • Pheidole tristicula: Holotype, worker (major), Madre de Dios: Cuzco Amazonico, 15 km northeast of Puerto Maldonado, Tambopata, Peru, Stefan Cover and John E. Tobin, Museum of Comparative Zoology.
  • Pheidole tristicula: Paratype, worker (minor), Madre de Dios: Cuzco Amazonico, 15 km northeast of Puerto Maldonado, Tambopata, Peru, Stefan Cover and John E. Tobin, Museum of Comparative Zoology.

Taxonomic Notes

Longino (2019) - Pheidole carapuna as interpreted here is a widespread species that occurs from Mexico to northern South America, as far south as Peru. Wilson (2003) commented on the closeness of Pheidole carapuna and Pheidole tristicula. I consider the slight morphological differences cited to differentiate them to be intraspecific variation. There is no evidence of multiple sympatric forms, and DNA sequence data (unpublished) suggest a single widespread species.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

From Wilson (2003): DIAGNOSIS A small, brownish red (major) to yellow (minor) species belonging to a group of ambiguous species composing the "carapuna complex" (Pheidole boltoni, Pheidole carapuna, Pheidole cornicula, Pheidole cuprina, Pheidole eriophora, Pheidole jivaro, Pheidole manuana and Pheidole tristicula) . All are relatively small in size, with the major possessing a reduced mesonotal convexity, as well as cephalic sculpturing that consists entirely of longitudinal carinulae extending to or almost to the occipital border seen in full-face view. All also have a minor with a broad, concave occiput, which lacks a collar.

Among these species, P. carapuna is close to tristicula (q.v.), distinguished in the major by its darker color, reduced pronotal carinulae and absence of carinulae in the posteriormost lateral quarters of the dorsal head surface seen in full-face view.

MEASUREMENTS (mm) Lectotype major: HW 1.08, HL 1.28, SL 0.60, EL 0.14, PW 0.60. Paralectotype minor: HW 0.48, HL 0.52, SL 0.44, EL 0.08, PW 0.32.

COLOR Major: body and head a rich medium brownish red, gaster light brown.

Minor: concolorous light yellow.

Pheidole tristicula

DIAGNOSIS A small, bicolorous, mostly yellow species belonging to a group of ambiguous species composing the "carapuna complex" (Pheidole boltoni, Pheidole carapuna, Pheidole cornicula, Pheidole cuprina, Pheidole eriophora, Pheidole jivaro, Pheidole manuana and Pheidole tristicula). All are relatively small in size, with the major possessing a reduced mesonotal convexity and cephalic sculpturing that consists entirely of longitudinal carinulae that extend to or almost to the occipital border seen in full-face view. All also have a minor with a broad, concave occiput, which lacksa collar. Among these species, P. tristicula is distinguished in the major by combination of its elevated humerus in dorsal-oblique view, laterally angular postpetiolar node, transversely carinulate pronotal dorsum, partially shagreened first gastral tergite, and in color. It is closest to carapuna.

MEASUREMENTS (mm) Holotype major: HW 1.08, HL 1.24, SL 0.64, EL 0.l8, PW 0.60. Paratype minor: HW 0.56, HL 0.60, SL 0.54, EL 0.l2, PW 0.38.

COLOR Major and minor: head and meso soma light reddish yellow ("orange"), rest of body and appendages clear medium yellow.

Pheidole carapuna Wilson 2003.jpg

Figure. Upper: lectotype, major. Lower: paralectotype, minor. Scale bars = 1 mm.

Pheidole tristicula Wilson 2003.jpg

Figure. Upper: holotype, major. Lower: paratype, minor. Scale bars = 1 mm.

Etymology

P. carapuna: Unknown.

L tristicula, dim. of tristis, sad.

References

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Bezdeckova K., P. Bedecka, and I. Machar. 2015. A checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru. Zootaxa 4020 (1): 101–133.
  • Castano-Meneses, G., M. Vasquez-Bolanos, J. L. Navarrete-Heredia, G. A. Quiroz-Rocha, and I. Alcala-Martinez. 2015. Avances de Formicidae de Mexico. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.
  • Dattilo W. et al. 2019. MEXICO ANTS: incidence and abundance along the Nearctic-Neotropical interface. Ecology https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2944
  • Davidson, D.W. 2005. Ecological stoichiometry of ants in a New World rain forest. Oecologia 142:221-231
  • Fernández, F. and S. Sendoya. 2004. Lista de las hormigas neotropicales. Biota Colombiana Volume 5, Number 1.
  • Franco W., N. Ladino, J. H. C. Delabie, A. Dejean, J. Orivel, M. Fichaux, S. Groc, M. Leponce, and R. M. Feitosa. 2019. First checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of French Guiana. Zootaxa 4674(5): 509-543.
  • LaPolla, J.S. and S.P. Cover. 2005. New species of Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Guyana, with a list of species known from the country. Tranactions of the American Entomological Society 131(3-4):365-374
  • Lapolla, J. S., and S. P. Cover. "New species of Pheidole (Hymenoptera : Formicidae) from Guyana, with a list of species known from the country." Transactions of the American Entomological Society 131, no. 3-4 (2005): 365-374.
  • Longino J. T. 2019. Pheidole (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Middle American wet forest. Zootaxa 4599: 1-126
  • Longino J. T. L., and M. G. Branstetter. 2018. The truncated bell: an enigmatic but pervasive elevational diversity pattern in Middle American ants. Ecography 41: 1-12.
  • Longino J. et al. ADMAC project. Accessed on March 24th 2017 at https://sites.google.com/site/admacsite/
  • Mertl, A.L., M.D. Sorenson and J.F.A. Traniello. 2010. Community-level interactions and functional ecology of major workers in the hyperdiverse ground-foraging Pheidole (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Amazonian Ecuador. Insectes Sociaux 54:441-452.
  • Perez L. G., G. A. Perez, C. Echeverri-Rubiano, A. F. Sanchez, J. Duran, and L. M. Pedraza. 2009. Ant richness (Hymenoptera: Formidiae) in Varzea and Terra Firme forest from the Colombian Amazonic region. Boletin Sociedad Entomologica Aragonesa 45: 477-483.
  • Ryder Wilkie K. T., A L. Mertl, J. F. A. Traniello. 2010. Diversity of ground-dwelling ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in primary and secondary forests in Amazonian Ecuador. Myrmecological News(12): 139-147
  • Ryder Wilkie K.T., A. L. Mertl, and J. F. A. Traniello. 2010. Species Diversity and Distribution Patterns of the Ants of Amazonian Ecuador. PLoS ONE 5(10): e13146.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013146
  • Salazar F., F. Reyes-Bueno, D. Sanmartin, and D. A. Donoso. 2015. Mapping continental Ecuadorian ant species. Sociobiology 62(2): 132-162.