Pheidole vorax

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Pheidole vorax
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Attini
Genus: Pheidole
Species: P. vorax
Binomial name
Pheidole vorax
(Fabricius, 1804)

Pheidole vorax jtlc000014068 profile 1.jpg

Pheidole vorax jtlc000014068 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Synonyms

This species occurs in wet to moist forest habitats. It nests in dead wood on or near the ground. Workers recruit to dead insects and other baits, and also harvest seeds. Large seed caches can be found in nests. Wilson (1987) demonstrated that minor workers were extremely sensitive to the presence of standing water. Even a few drops in the nest of a laboratory colony caused it to immediately evacuate the nest. (Longino 2009)

Identification

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Mainland Neotropics from southern Mexico to Amazon basin and Bolivia.


Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 18.6246° to -64.3°.

     
North
Temperate
North
Subtropical
Tropical South
Subtropical
South
Temperate

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago.

Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Associations with other Organisms

Nematode

  • This species is a host for the nematode Mermithidae (unspecified "Mermix") (a parasite) in Guatemala (Wheeler, 1928; Laciny, 2021).

Castes

Worker

Minor

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • vorax. Formica vorax Fabricius, 1804: 412 (w.) CENTRAL AMERICA. Combination in Aphaenogaster: Roger, 1863b: 30; in Pheidole: Emery, 1915d: 69. [Omitted from Wilson, 2003.] Senior synonym of apterostigmoides, cephalica, incrustata, opaca, sarrita: Longino, 2009: 85.
  • cephalica. Pheidole cephalica Smith, F. 1858b: 177, pl. 9, figs. 21-23 (s.w.) BRAZIL. Senior synonym of opaca: Kempf, 1965: 183; of apterostigmoides, incrustata, sarrita: Wilson, 2003: 674. Junior synonym of vorax: Longino, 2009: 85.
  • opaca. Pheidole opaca Mayr, 1862: 749 (s.w.) BRAZIL. Forel, 1899c: 69 (q.); Borgmeier, 1934: 97 (q.). Junior synonym of cephalica: Kempf, 1965: 183; of vorax: Longino, 2009: 85.
  • incrustata. Pheidole opaca var. incrustata Forel, 1908b: 59 (w.) COSTA RICA. Subspecies of cephalica: Kempf, 1972a: 188. Junior synonym of cephalica: Wilson, 2003: 674; of vorax: Longino, 2009: 86.
  • sarrita. Pheidole opaca subsp. sarrita Forel, 1908b: 59 (w.) COSTA RICA. Subspecies of cephalica: Kempf, 1972a: 188. Junior synonym of cephalica: Wilson, 2003: 674; of vorax: Longino, 2009: 86.
  • apterostigmoides. Pheidole opaca subsp. apterostigmoides Weber, 1943b: 71, fig. 3 (s.w.) TRINIDAD. Subspecies of cephalica: Kempf, 1972a: 188. Junior synonym of cephalica: Wilson, 2003: 674; of vorax: Longino, 2009: 86.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Longino (2009) - There is geographic variation in sculpture and color. In Costa Rica, minor workers from Corcovado National Park in the southern Pacific lowlands have the face and mesosoma evenly foveolate, overlain with relatively weak rugae, and the color is light orange. Specimens from near Monteverde on the Pacific slope of the Cordillera de Tilarán have the face and mesosoma with coarse, abundant, reticulate rugae, these overlying a largely smooth and shining integument, and the color is light orange. This form matches closely the subspecies P. incrustata. Specimens from the Peñas Blancas Valley, a short distance east of Monteverde on the Atlantic slope, are very similar but the color is darker red orange. Specimens from La Selva Biological Station and elsewhere in the Atlantic lowlands have the coarsely rugose sculpture of Monteverde specimens, but increasing underlying foveolation on the mesosoma, like the Corcovado specimens, and the color is darker red orange. This form matches the subspecies P. sarrita.

Description

Type Material

Longino (2009):

Lectotype and two paralectotype queens, here designated: Central America Zoologisk Museum, University of Copenhagen (images examined). Roger, 1863: 30: combination in Aphaenogaster.

Pheidole cephalica Syntype major, minor worker: Brazil, Amazonas, Tunantins (Bates) The Natural History Museum (not examined).

Pheidole opaca Syntype major, minor worker: Brazil, "Im Gebiete des Amazonenstromes" [Amazonian region] (M. C. Vienn) (not examined).

Pheidole opaca var. incrustata Syntype minor worker: Costa Rica, Tuis (Pittier) [[[MHNG|Musee d'Histoire Naturelle Genève]]] (examined).

Pheidole opaca subsp. sarrita Syntype minor worker: Costa Rica, Surubres, near San Mateo (Biolley) MHNG (examined).

Pheidole opaca subsp. apterostigmoides Syntype major, minor worker: Trinidad, Basin Hill Forest Reserve, 1 Apr 1935 (Weber) (not examined).

References

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Ahuatzin D. A., E. J. Corro, A. Aguirre Jaimes, J. E. Valenzuela Gonzalez, R. Machado Feitosa, M. Cezar Ribeiro, J. Carlos Lopez Acosta, R. Coates, W. Dattilo. 2019. Forest cover drives leaf litter ant diversity in primary rainforest remnants within human-modified tropical landscapes. Biodiversity and Conservation 28(5): 1091-1107.
  • Dattilo W. et al. 2019. MEXICO ANTS: incidence and abundance along the Nearctic-Neotropical interface. Ecology https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2944
  • Fernandes I., and J. de Souza. 2018. Dataset of long-term monitoring of ground-dwelling ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the influence areas of a hydroelectric power plant on the Madeira River in the Amazon Basin. Biodiversity Data Journal 6: e24375.
  • Fernandes, P.R. XXXX. Los hormigas del suelo en Mexico: Diversidad, distribucion e importancia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).
  • Fernández F., E. E. Palacio, W. P. Mackay, and E. S. MacKay. 1996. Introducción al estudio de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de Colombia. Pp. 349-412 in: Andrade M. G., G. Amat García, and F. Fernández. (eds.) 1996. Insectos de Colombia. Estudios escogidos. Bogotá: Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, 541 pp
  • Fernández, F. and S. Sendoya. 2004. Lista de las hormigas neotropicales. Biota Colombiana Volume 5, Number 1.
  • Forel A. 1908. Fourmis de Costa-Rica récoltées par M. Paul Biolley. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 44: 35-72.
  • Forel A. 1912. Einige interessante Ameisen des Deutschen Entomologischen Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem. Entomol. Mitt. 1: 81-83.
  • Franco W., N. Ladino, J. H. C. Delabie, A. Dejean, J. Orivel, M. Fichaux, S. Groc, M. Leponce, and R. M. Feitosa. 2019. First checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of French Guiana. Zootaxa 4674(5): 509-543.
  • Jeanne R. J. 1979. A latitudinal gradient in rates of ant predation. Ecology 60(6): 1211-1224.
  • Kempf W. W. 1961. A survey of the ants of the soil fauna in Surinam (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Studia Entomologica 4: 481-524.
  • Kempf W. W. 1965. Nota preliminar sôbre algumas formigas neotrópicas, descritas por Frederick Smith (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia 25: 181-186.
  • Kempf W. W. 1978. A preliminary zoogeographical analysis of a regional ant fauna in Latin America. 114. Studia Entomologica 20: 43-62.
  • Kempf, W.W. 1972. Catalago abreviado das formigas da regiao Neotropical (Hym. Formicidae) Studia Entomologica 15(1-4).
  • LaPolla, J.S. and S.P. Cover. 2005. New species of Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Guyana, with a list of species known from the country. Tranactions of the American Entomological Society 131(3-4):365-374
  • Lapolla, J. S., and S. P. Cover. "New species of Pheidole (Hymenoptera : Formicidae) from Guyana, with a list of species known from the country." Transactions of the American Entomological Society 131, no. 3-4 (2005): 365-374.
  • Longino J. T. 2009. Additions to the taxonomy of New World Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 2181: 1-90.
  • Longino J. T. L., and M. G. Branstetter. 2018. The truncated bell: an enigmatic but pervasive elevational diversity pattern in Middle American ants. Ecography 41: 1-12.
  • Longino J. T., and R. K. Colwell. 2011. Density compensation, species composition, and richness of ants on a neotropical elevational gradient. Ecosphere 2(3): 16pp.
  • Longino J. et al. ADMAC project. Accessed on March 24th 2017 at https://sites.google.com/site/admacsite/
  • Maes, J.-M. and W.P. MacKay. 1993. Catalogo de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de Nicaragua. Revista Nicaraguense de Entomologia 23.
  • Mann W. M. 1916. The Stanford Expedition to Brazil, 1911, John C. Branner, Director. The ants of Brazil. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 60: 399-490
  • Vásquez-Bolaños M. 2011. Lista de especies de hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) para México. Dugesiana 18: 95-133
  • Weber N. A. 1943. New ants from Venezuela and neighboring countries. Bol. Entomol. Venez. 2: 67-78.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1928. Mermis parasitism and intercastes among ants. Journal of Experimental Biology 50: 165-237.