Polyrhachis rastellata

Every Ant Tells a Story - And Scientists Explain Their Stories Here
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Polyrhachis rastellata
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Camponotini
Genus: Polyrhachis
Subgenus: Cyrtomyrma
Species: P. rastellata
Binomial name
Polyrhachis rastellata
(Latreille, 1802)

Polyrhachis rastellata casent0903407 p 1 high.jpg

Polyrhachis rastellata casent0903407 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Subspecies
Synonyms

The identity and distribution of this species has not been firmly established (see below) hence little can be inferred from any records about Polyrhachis rastellata biology.

Photo Gallery

  • Polyrhachis rastellata worker from Kerala, India. Photo by Kalesh Sadasivan.
  • Alate queen from Mysuru, Karnataka, India. Photo by Pavan Ramachandra.

Identification

Polyrhachis rastellata resembles Polyrhachis lepida. Polyrhachis lepida is generally smaller, with a distinctly more convex occiput and longer antennal scapes (SI 128-136 versus 111-123 in Polyrhachis rastellata). The petiolar spines differ, with the lateral pair in Polyrhachis lepida distinctly longer than the dorsal pair. In contrast, the petiolar spines in Polyrhachis rastellata are subequal or the lateral pair is somewhat shorter than the dorsal pair. The two species also differ in the colour of their legs with those of Polyrhachis lepida consistently darker. (Modified from Kohout 2006).

Keys including this Species

Distribution

In the literature, Polyrhachis rastellata has been reported to occur over most of south-east Asia and south across Indonesia and New Guinea to northern Australia. However, many of these records are linked to the numerous infraspecies connected to that name. Several authors, including Mayr (1872: 138) and Wheeler (1919: 136) listed Polyrhachis rastellata from Borneo and various authors have listed it from New Guinea. Consequently, I have included it in the lists and keys of species from both regions. However, I have not seen any Bornean or New Guinean material satisfactorily comparable with the specimens from India that Donisthorpe considered to be Polyrhachis rastellata and I believe that the nominal form is restricted to India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and former Indochina, including Sumatra and possibly Java. (Kohout 2006)

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Borneo, Indonesia (type locality), Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines.
Oriental Region: India, Sri Lanka, Thailand.
Palaearctic Region: China.


Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Castes

Worker

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • rastellata. Formica rastellata Latreille, 1802c: 130 (q.) INDONESIA ("Indes orientales"). Mayr, 1862: 688 (w.); Mayr, 1876: 70 (m.); Crozier, 1970: 115 (k.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1990b: 756 (l.). Combination in Polyrhachis: Smith, F. 1858b: 59; in P. (Cyrtomyrma): Forel, 1915b: 107. Senior synonym of ceylonensis Donisthorpe: Dorow, 1995: 24. See also: Kohout, 2006b: 114. Current subspecies: nominal plus congener.
  • ceylonensis. Polyrhachis (Cyrtomyrma) rastellata var. ceylonensis Donisthorpe, 1938c: 256 (w.) SRI LANKA. [Unresolved junior primary homonym of ceylonensis Emery, above.] Junior synonym of rastellata: Dorow, 1995: 24.

Type Material

  • Formica rastellata: Holotype, queen, Indonesia.

Taxonomic Notes

The identity and range of Polyrhachis rastellata is somewhat muddled. Kohout (2006) explains: "During the past two centuries more than twenty infraspecific names have been connected to this name. My current interpretation of this species is based upon specimens from India that Donisthorpe considered to be Polyrhachis rastellata [‘Described from an Indian specimen (Wroughton)’ (Donisthorpe, 1938)]. However, the type locality of Polyrhachis rastellata is the ‘Indes orientales’ or the East Indies, and probably corresponds to modern day Malaysia and Indonesia. Consequently, interpreting Polyrhachis rastellata based on Indian material may well be incorrect. It would be highly desirable to establish the nomenclatural stability of this species by the designation of a neotype. However, I believe that such an action would not be appropriate here, as I have not attempted a revision of the Asian fauna of the subgenus."

From Kohout (2006): The holotype queen of Polyrhachis rastellata was apparently lost “a long time ago” (J. Casevitz Weulersse, Musee National d'Histoire Naturelle, pers. comm.). The type locality, given as the East Indies ("Indes Orientales"), probably corresponds to modern Malaysia and Indonesia.

Description

Karyotype

  • n = 21, 2n = 42, karyotype = 8M+34SM (Malaysia) (Crozier, 1970b; Imai et al., 1983).

References

  • Baltazar, C. R. 1966. A catalogue of Philippine Hymenoptera (with a bibliography, 1758-1963). Pac. Insects Monogr. 8: 1-488 (page 275, listed)
  • Crozier, R. H. 1970a. Karyotypes of twenty-one ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with reviews of the known ant karyotypes. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 12: 109-128 (page 115, karyotype described)
  • Dorow, W. H. O. 1995. Revision of the ant genus Polyrhachis Smith, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) on subgenus level with keys, checklist of species and bibliography. Cour. Forschungsinst. Senckenb. 185: 1-113 (page 24, Senior synonym of ceylonensis Donisthorpe)
  • Forel, A. 1915b. Results of Dr. E. Mjöbergs Swedish Scientific Expeditions to Australia 1910-13. 2. Ameisen. Ark. Zool. 9(1 16: 1-119 (page 107, Combination in P. (Cyrtomyrma))
  • Kohout, R. J. 2006. Review of Polyrhachis (Cyrtomyrma) Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) of Australia, Borneo, New Guinea and the Solomon Islands with descriptions of new species. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 52:87-146.
  • Latreille, P.A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle des Fourmis, et recueil de mémoires et d’observations sur les abeilles, les araignées, les faucheurs, et autres insectes. Paris.
  • Latreille, P. A. 1802b. Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des Crustacés et des insectes. Tome 3. Familles naturelles des genres. Paris: F. Dufart, xii + 467 pp. (page 130, queen described)
  • Mayr, G. 1862. Myrmecologische Studien. Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 12: 649-776 (page 688, worker described, Senior synonym of busiris)
  • Mayr, G. 1876. Die australischen Formiciden. J. Mus. Godeffroy 12: 56-115 (page 70, male described)
  • Roger, J. 1863b. Verzeichniss der Formiciden-Gattungen und Arten. Berl. Entomol. Z. 7(B Beilage: 1-65 (page 6, Senior synonym of busiris)
  • Smith, F. 1858a. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. London: British Museum, 216 pp. (page 59, Combination in Polyrhachis)
  • Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1990b. Larvae of the formicine ant genus Polyrhachis. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 116: 753-767 (page 756, larva described)


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Ashmead W. H. 1904. A list of the Hymenoptera of the Philippine Islands, with descriptions of new species. J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 12:1-22.
  • Chapman, J. W., and Capco, S. R. 1951. Check list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Asia. Monogr. Inst. Sci. Technol. Manila 1: 1-327
  • Chen Z. L., S. Y. Zhou, D. D. Ye, Y. Chen, and C. W. Lu. 2013. Moleular phylogeny of the ant subfamily Formicinae (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from China based on Mitochondrial genes. Sociobiology 60(2): 135-144.
  • Chung A.Y.C., and M. Mohamed. 1996. A comparative study of the ant fauna in a primary and secondary forest in Sabah, Malaysia. In Edwards, D.S. Booth, W.E. and S.C. Choy (eds). Tropical Rainforest Research. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Pp 357-366.
  • Dahl F. 1901. Das Leben der Ameisen im Bismarck-Archipel, nach eigenen Beobachtungen vergleichend dargestellt. Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berl. 2: 1-70.
  • Dias R. K. S. 2002. Current knowledge on ants of Sri Lanka. ANeT Newsletter 4: 17- 21.
  • Dias R. K. S. 2006. Current taxonomic status of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Sri Lanka. The Fauna of Sri Lanka: 43-52. Bambaradeniya, C.N.B. (Editor), 2006. Fauna of Sri Lanka: Status of Taxonomy, Research and Conservation. The World Conservation Union, Colombo, Sri Lanka & Government of Sri Lanka. viii + 308pp.
  • Dias R. K. S., K. R. K. A. Kosgamage, and H. A. W. S. Peiris. 2012. The Taxonomy and Conservation Status of Ants (Order: Hymenoptera, Family: Formicidae) in Sri Lanka. In: The National Red List 2012 of Sri Lanka; Conservation Status of the Fauna and Flora. Weerakoon, D.K. & S. Wijesundara Eds., Ministry of Environment, Colombo, Sri Lanka. p11-19.
  • Dias, R.K.S. 2006. Overview of ant research in Sri Lanka: 2000-2004. ANeT Newsletter 8:7-10
  • Donisthorpe, Horace. 1941. The Ants of Japen Island, Dutch New Guinea (Hym. Formicidae). The Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London. 91(2):51-64.
  • Donisthorpe, Horace. 1943. The Ants of Waigeu Island, North Dutch New Guinea. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History 11 (10): 433-475.
  • Dorow W. H. O., and U. Maschwitz. 1990. The arachne-group of Polyrhachis (Formicidae: Formicinae): weaver ants cultivating Homoptera on bamboo. Insectes Sociaux. 37: 73-89.
  • Emery C. 1887. Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte terza. Formiche della regione Indo-Malese e dell'Australia. [part]. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 24(4): 209-258.
  • Emery C. 1893. Formicides de l'Archipel Malais. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 1: 187-229.
  • Emery C. 1893. Voyage de M. E. Simon à l'île de Ceylan (janvier-février 1892). Formicides. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 62: 239-258.
  • Emery C. 1911. Formicidae. Résultats de l'expédition scientifique néerlandaise à la Nouvelle-Guinée en 1903 sous les auspices de Arthur Wichmann. Nova Guinea 5: 531-539.
  • Emery C. 1911. Formicidae. Résultats de l'expédition scientifique néerlandaise à la Nouvelle-Guinée en 1907 et 1909 sous les auspices de Dr. H. A. Lorentz. Nova Guin. 9: 249-259
  • Emery C. Formiche raccolte da Elio Modigliani in Sumatra, Engano e Mentawei. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 40: 661-722.
  • Emery, C. "Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte terza. Formiche della regione Indo-Malese e dell'Australia." Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria (Genova) (2) 4, no. 24 (1887): 209-258.
  • Emery, C. "Formiche raccolte da Elio Modigliani in Sumatra, Engano e Mentawei." Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria (Genova) (2) 20, no. 40 (1900): 661-722.
  • Emery, C. "Voyage de MM. Bedot et Pictet dans l'Archipel Malais. Formicides de l'Archipel Malais." Revue Suisse de Zoologie 1 (1893): 187-229.
  • Forel A. 1893. Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part III. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 8: 17-36.
  • Forel A. 1901. Formiciden aus dem Bismarck-Archipel, auf Grundlage des von Prof. Dr. F. Dahl gesammelten Materials. Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berl. 2: 4-37.
  • Forel A. 1909. Ameisen aus Java und Krakatau beobachtet und gesammelt von Herrn Edward Jacobson. Notes Leyden Mus. 31: 221-232.
  • Forel A. 1909. Études myrmécologiques en 1909. Fourmis de Barbarie et de Ceylan. Nidification des Polyrhachis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 45: 369-407.
  • Forel A. 1911. Ameisen aus Java beobachtet und gesammelt von Herrn Edward Jacobson. II. Theil. Notes Leyden Mus. 33: 193-218.
  • Forel A. 1913. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse einer Forschungsreise nach Ostindien ausgeführt im Auftrage der Kgl. Preuss. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin von H. v. Buttel-Reepen. II. Ameisen aus Sumatra, Java, Malacca und Ceylon. Gesammelt von Herrn Prof. Dr. v. Buttel-Reepen in den Jahren 1911-1912. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 36:1-148.
  • Gumawardene, N.R., J.D. Majer and J.P. Edirisinghe. 2008. Diversity and richness of ant species in a lowland wet forest reserve in Sri Lanka. Asian Myrmecology 2:71-83
  • Gunawardene N. R., J. D. Majer, and J. P. Edirisinghe. 2008. Diversity and richness of ant species in a lowland wet forest reserve in Sri Lanka. Asian Myrmecology 2: 71-83.
  • Guénard B., and R. R. Dunn. 2012. A checklist of the ants of China. Zootaxa 3558: 1-77.
  • IZIKO South Africa Museum Collection
  • Jaitrong W.; Nabhitabhata, J. 2005. A list of known ant species of Thailand. The Thailand Natural History Museum Journal 1(1): 9-54.
  • Janda M., G. D. Alpert, M. L. Borowiec, E. P. Economo, P. Klimes, E. Sarnat, and S. O. Shattuck. 2011. Cheklist of ants described and recorded from New Guinea and associated islands. Available on http://www.newguineants.org/. Accessed on 24th Feb. 2011.
  • Kaleeswaran B., S. Ezil, B. P. Ganesh, and S. Bhavatarini. 2008. Biodiversity and niches of Ants in Alagar hills, Tamil nadu Wildlife Biodiversity Conservation Published by Day publishing house pp 188-208.
  • Latumahina F., M. Borovanska, N. S. Putra, and M. Janda. 2015. Ants of Ambon Island – diversity survey and checklist. ZooKeys 472: 43–57.
  • Li Q., Y. Chen, S. Wang, Y. Zheng, Y. Zhu, and S. Wang. 2009. Diversity of ants in subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in Pu'er City, Yunnan. Biodiversity Science 17(3): 233-239.
  • Li Z.h. 2006. List of Chinese Insects. Volume 4. Sun Yat-sen University Press
  • Mann William. 1916. The Ants of the British Solomon Islands. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 63(7): 273-391
  • Mathew R. 2003. On Formicidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of Nongkhyllem Wild Life Sanctuary, Ri-Bhoi District, Meghalaya. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 101:195-207.
  • Mathew R., and R. N. Tiwari. 2000. Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Pp. 251-409 in: Director; Zoological Survey of India (ed.) 2000. Fauna of of Meghalaya. Part 7. [State Fauna Series 4.] Insecta 2000. Calcutta: Zoological Survey of India, 621 pp.
  • Mukerjee D. 1934. Entomological investigations on the spike disease of sandal (22). Formicidae (Hymen.). Indian Forest Rec. Entomol. Ser. 20 5: 1-15.
  • Narendra A., H. Gibb, and T. M. Ali. 2011. Structure of ant assemblages in Western Ghats, India: role of habitat, disturbance and introduced species. Insect Conservation and diversity 4(2): 132-141.
  • Parui A. K., S. Chatterjee, and P. Basu. 2015. Habitat characteristics shaping ant species assemblages in a mixed deciduous forest in Eastern India. Journal of Tropical Ecology: 1-14. doi:10.1017/S0266467415000036
  • Pfeiffer M.; Mezger, D.; Hosoishi, S.; Bakhtiar, E. Y.; Kohout, R. J. 2011. The Formicidae of Borneo (Insecta: Hymenoptera): a preliminary species list. Asian Myrmecology 4:9-58
  • Philpott S.M., P. Bichier, R.A. Rice, and R. Greenberg. 2008. Biodiversity conservation, yield, and alternative products in coffee agroecosystems in Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodivers. Conserv. 17: 1805-1820. Data obtained from Stacy Philpott
  • Ramachandra T. V., M. D. Subash Chandran, N. V. Joshi, A. Narendra, and T. M. Ali. 2012. Ant species composition and diversity in the Sharavathi Rivers basin, central Western Ghats. Sahyadri Conservation Series 3, ENVIS Technical Report 20. 51 pages.
  • Ran H., and S. Y. Zhou. 2013. Checklist of Chinese Ants: Formicomorph Subfamilies ( Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (III). Journal of Guangxi Normal University : Natural Science Edition 31(1): 104-111.
  • Robson Simon Ant Collection, 05-Sept-2014
  • Santschi F. 1928. Fourmis de Sumatra, récoltées par Mr. J. B. Corporaal. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 71: 119-140.
  • Saranya S., A. Anu, J. K. Gigi, and T. Shaju. 2013. A Study on the Ant Diversity (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Periyar Tiger Reserve in South Western Ghats. The Indian Forester 139(10): 936-942.
  • Sheela S. 2008. Handbook of Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Zoological Survey of India, 56 pages
  • Song Y., Z. Xu, C. Li, N. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Jiang, and F. Mo. 2013. An Analysis on the Ant Fauna of the Nangun river Nature Reserve in Yunnan, China. Forest Research 26(6): 773-780.
  • Stitz H. 1911. Australische Ameisen. (Neu-Guinea und Salomons-Inseln, Festland, Neu-Seeland). Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1911: 351-381.
  • Stitz H. 1912. Ameisen aus Ceram und Neu-Guinea. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1912: 498-514.
  • Sukimin S., M. Mohamed, and H. Aris. 2010. Ant diversity of Maliau Basin Conservation Area, Sabah, Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation 6:89-101.
  • Terayama M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University. Liberal Arts 17:81-266.
  • Terayama, M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta; Hymenoptera). The Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University 17: 81-266.
  • Tiwari R. N. 1999. Taxonomic studies on ants of southern India (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 18(4): 1-96.
  • Tiwari, R.N. 1999. Taxonomic studies on ants of southern India (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 18(4):1-96
  • Varghese T. 2004. Taxonomic studies on ant genera of the Indian Institute of Science campus with notes on their nesting habits. Pp. 485-502 in : Rajmohana, K.; Sudheer, K.; Girish Kumar, P.; Santhosh, S. (eds.) 2004. Perspectives on biosystematics and biodiversity. Prof. T.C. Narendran commemoration volume. Kerala: Systematic Entomology Research Scholars Association, xxii + 666 pp.
  • Viehmeyer H. 1912. Ameisen aus Deutsch Neuguinea gesammelt von Dr. O. Schlaginhaufen. Nebst einem Verzeichnisse der papuanischen Arten. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Königlichen Zoologischen und Anthropologische-Ethnographischen Museums zu Dresden 14: 1-26.
  • Viehmeyer H. 1914. Ameisen aus Perak, Bali und Ceram (Hym.) (Freiburger Molukken-Expedition), gesammelt von E. Streesemann. Entomologische Mitteilungen. Berlin-Dahlem 3: 112-116.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1919. The ants of Borneo. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 63:43-147.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1930. Formosan ants collected by Dr. R. Takahashi. Proceedings of the New England Zoological Club 11: 93-106.
  • Wheeler W.M. 1935. Check list of the ants of Oceania. Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 11(11):1-56.
  • Wheeler, William Morton.1935.Checklist of the Ants of Oceania.Occasional Papers 11(11): 3-56
  • Widodo E.S., M. Mohamed, and Y. Hashimoto. 2001. Canopy ant diversity assessment in the fragmented rainforest of Sabah, East Malaysia. Nature and Human activities 6: 13-23.
  • Xu Z., Zeng G., Liu T.-Y. and He Y.-F. 1999. [A study on communities of Formicidae ants in different subtypes of vegetation in Xishuangbanna District of China.] Zoological Research 20: 118-125
  • Xu Zheng-Hui. 2002. A systematic study on the ant subgenus Cyrtomyrma Forel of the genus Polyrhachis Smith of China (Hymenoptera; Formicidae). Acta Entomologica Sinica 45(4): 522-530.
  • Zhang R. J., L. W. Liang, and S. Y. Zhou. 2014. An analysis on the ant fauna of Nonggang Nature Reserve in Guangxi, China. Journal of Guangxi Normal university: Natural Science Edition 32(3): 86-93.
  • Zhao S., F. L. Jia, G. Q. Liang, Y. L. Ke, W. J. Tian. 2009. Ants and their distribution in Guangdong Province, China. Journal of Environmental Entomology 31(2): 156-161.
  • Zhou S.-Y. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press, Guilin, China, Guilin, China. 255 pp.