Onoyama & Yoshimura, 2002
This species was sometimes reported as Proceratium itoi. For example, Sonobe's (1974) figure of "P. itoi" in fact depicts P. morisitai. The distribution overlaps that of P. itoi, but P. morisitai is more sporadic. Rare. (Japanese Ant Image Database)
- 1 Identification
- 2 Distribution
- 3 Biology
- 4 Castes
- 5 Nomenclature
- 6 References
- 7 References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
A member of the pergandei clade. Proceratium morisitai is very similar to Proceratium melinum in body shape but differs, in the worker and gyne, by the head sculpture granulate instead of rugosopunctate and by the second tarsomere of the hind legs about as long as the pretarsus instead of 1/5 longer than the pretarsus, and, in the male by the IGR = 0.68 instead of 0.62. (Baroni Urbani and de Andrade 2003)
Keys including this Species
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
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Very little is known about the biology of Proceratium ants. They nest in soil, rotten wood, under deep-set stones and, in a few cases, tree branches. For many species the nest consists of small rounded chambers hollowed out of soft rotten wood or in the soil. Toward the cooler limits of the range, particularly in North America, nests and foraging workers are found under deep set rocks instead of in rotten wood. The nest site is usually in forest shade, in old moist gardens, or similar habitats that are constantly moist. Some species of known to be egg predators of arthropods, especially of spiders.
Most Proceratium are relatively rare but this is not the full explanation for why they are not commonly collected. Colonies of most species are small. Based on anectdotal natural history information from a few species, it was once thought that most Proceratium would likely be found to have mature colonies that contain somewhere between 10 - 50 workers. Yet nests with more than 50, and in some cases up to 200, workers have been been reported. Besides small colonies, these ants also do not appear to forage in places where they are readily encountered.
Males and females are though to be produced in small numbers but we generally do not have enough data for colonies of any species to know what might be typical. Reproductive flights have been observered toward the end of the summer in some northern temperate areas. In these regions the nuptial flight occurs during the last half of August. Both sexes climb some distance from the nest entrance before taking flight. Workers too issue from the nest during the nuptial flight, as is often the case with otherwise cryptobiotic ants.
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- morisitai. Proceratium morisitai Onoyama & Yoshimura, 2002: 40, figs. 1, 3, 13-15, 25-27, 39-42, 51, 52, 56, 61-63, 73-76 (w.q.m.) JAPAN. See also: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2003b: 260.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Baroni Urbani and de Andrade (2003) - Head longer than broad, its sides gently convex in the two anterior thirds and converging in the posterior third. Anteromedian part of the clypeus narrow, triangular and protruding anteriorly, with a marked longitudinal carina dorsally. Frontal carinae diverging posteriorly, weakly raised and not close to each other. Lateral expansions of the frontal carinae narrow. Genal carina absent. Gular area not impressed. Eyes absent or small and represented by a dark dot below the integument. This pigmented area, when present, on the midline of the head. First funicular joint about as long as broad. Funicular joints 2-10 about as broad as long or slightly broader than long. Last funicular joint about as long as the sum of joints 7-10. Scapes much short of vertexal margin and gently thickening apically. Masticatory margin of the mandibles with 4-6 denticles before the pointed apical tooth. Palp formula 4,3.
Mesosoma about as long as the maximum head length (mandibles included). Propodeal suture weakly impressed dorsally. Basal face of the propodeum gently declivous posteriorly. Area between basal and declivous faces of the propodeum gently concave and separated laterally by a denticle. Declivous face of the propodeum flat and with marginate sides. Propodeal lobes round and lamellaceous. Propodeal spiracle round and above the mid height in lateral view.
Petiole slightly longer than broad, convex in side view and with the sides diverging on the anterior fourth and convex posteriorly in dorsal view. Anterior border of the petiole concave and carinate, the carina forming a denticle on each side. Ventral process of the petiole lamelliform and pointed posteriorly. Postpetiole anteriorly broader than the petiole; its sides gently convex. Postpetiolar sternite anteromedially with a marked subtriangular projection. Posterior half of the postpetiolar sternite strongly convex. Constriction between postpetiole and first gastral segment impressed. Gastral tergite I strongly convex on the curvature. Remaining gastral tergites and sternites curved ventrally.
Legs slender but not very elongate. All tibiae with a pectinate spur. Spurs of fore legs with basal spine. Fore basitarsi longer than the mid ones. Hind basitarsi about 1/5 shorter than hind tibiae. Second tarsomere of hind legs about as long as the pretarsus. Pretarsal claws simple. Arolia large.
Sculpture. Head, mesosoma, petiole and postpetiole strongly granulate. Second gastral segment superficially shining and covered by piligerous impressions. Legs punctate.
Pilosity. Body covered by hairs of three main types: (1) short, dense, subdecumbent on the whole body, sparse and suberect on the funicular joints; (2) longer than type (1), sparse and suberect on the whole body, absent on the funiculi; (3) shorter than hair type (1), dense and decumbent on the funicular joints only. In addition the funicular joints bear whitish, thick, appressed, short, sparse hairs, and the scapes with sparse hairs shorter than hair type (2).
Colour yellowish to light brown.
Measurements in mm and Indices: TL 3.64-4.25; HL 0.78-0.91; HW 0.70-0.80; EL 0.03-0.04; SL 0.56-0.66; WL 1.00-1.16; PeL 0.33-0.37; PeW 0.28-0.33; HFeL 0.59-0.73; HTiL 0.52-0.64; HBaL 0.41-0.51; LS4 0.37-0.42; LT4 0.86-1.04; CI 87.9-89.7; SI 71.1-72.8; IGR 0.40-0.43.
Baroni Urbani and de Andrade (2003) - Differing from the worker in the following details: eyes large, slightly more than 1/5 of the head length and with well defined ommatidia. Ocular pilosity present. Ocelli present. Mesosoma robust. Scutellum large, slightly longer than the length of the basal face; its sides gently converging to a convex posterior border. Metanotum with traces of a minute denticle.
Fore wings of our type 2, hind wings of our type 1 as defined in the description of the genus.
Measurements in mm and Indices: TL 4.66; HL 0.92; HW 0.82; EL 0.20; SL 0.63: WL 1.32; PeL 0.39; PeW 0.34; HFeL 0.78; HTiL 0.66; HBaL 0.53; LS4 0.52; LT4 1.20; CI 89.1 ; SI 68.5; IGR 0.43.
Baroni Urbani and de Andrade (2003) - Head slightly broader than long. Vertex in full face view convex. Vertexal margin carinate. Clypeus subround; its dorso-median part with a superficial longitudinal carina reaching the anterior ocellus. Frontal carinae thin, slightly diverging posteriorly frontal area gently concave. Ocelli large. Compound eyes large and placed mostly on the anterior part of the head sides. Scapes allnost reaching the vertexal margin. First funicular joint about 1/5 longer than broad, thicker and about 1/2 as long as the second joint. Joints 2-11 longer than broad. Last funicular joint slightly longer than the sum of joints 10-11. Mandibles with 3-4 minute denticles before the pointed apical tooth. Palp formula apparently 4,3.
Mesosoma robust. Pronotum and anterior third of mesonotum almost perpendicular to the posterior two thirds of the mesonotum. Posterior two thirds of mesonotum almost flat. Parapsidal furrows marked. Scutellum as high as the mesonotum; posterior border of the scutellum round. Propodeum without clearly differentiated basal and declivous faces, gently convex and unarmed in profile. Metanotum with a median, carinate denticle. Propodeal lobes round. Propodeal spiracles small.
Petiole slightly longer than broad, declivous in the anterior third and convex in the two posterior thirds in side view. Sides of the petiole subparallel in the anterior third and gently convex posteriorly in dorsal view. Anterior border of the petiole concave, carinate and laterally angulate. Subpetiolar process larnellaceous and mcdially pointed. Postpetiole anteriorly broader than the petiole; postpetiolar sides gently convex. Anterior border of the postpetiolar sternite with a triangular "lip". Posterior half of the postpetiolar sternite gently convex. Gastral tergite I slightly round. Gastral sternite I large. Remaining gastral tergites and sternites slightly curved ventrally.
Legs slender and elongate. Spurs of fore legs with basal spine. Hind basitarsi about 1/7 shorter than hind tibiae. Second tarsomere of hind legs longer than the pretarsus. Pretarsal claws simple. Arolia large.
Fore wings of our type 2, hind wings of our type 1 as defined in the description of the genus.
Sculpture. Head, mesosoma, petiole and postpetiole minutely granulopunctate. In addition the head, scutellum, propodeum and metapleurae with thin, irregular, rugosities. Gaster smooth and with sparse, minute piligerous impressions. Legs with sparse, minute punctures.
Pilosity similar to the worker.
Colour. Dark brown-black with lighter antennae and legs.
Measurements in mm and Indices: TL 3.64; HL 0.62; HW 0.67; EL 0.29; SL 0.48; WL 1.24; PeL 0.31; PeW 0.27; HFeL 0.78; HTiL 0.66; HBaL 0.57; LS4 0.57; LT4 0.84; CI 108.0; SI 77.4; IGR 0.68.
Type locality: Kamigamo-nakayama-cho, Kita-ku, Japan. Type material: 3 paratype workers, 1 paratype gyne and 1 paratype male labelled "Kamigano-nakayanacho, Kita-ku, Kyoto, Japan, 100 m alt., A. Taki leg, 10.X.1991, K. Onoyama & M. Yoshimura, det. XII.2000. Proceratium morisitai; Paratype" in Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel (1 worker, 1 gyne and 1 male), Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History (1 worker) and MRSN (1 worker), examined.
- Baroni Urbani, C., de Andrade, M.L. 2003. The ant genus Proceratium in the extant and fossil record (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Monografie, 36, 1–492. (page 260, figs. 108-110 worker, queen, male described)
- Onoyama, K. ; Yoshimura, M. 2002. The ants of the genus Proceratium (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Japan. Entomol. Sci. 5(1): 29-49 (page 40, figs. 1, 3, 13-15, 25-27, 39-42, 51, 52, 56, 61-63, 73-76 worker, queen, male described)
References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
- Onoyama K., and M. Yoshimura. 2002. The ants of the genus Proceratium (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Japan. Entomological Science 5(1): 29-49.
- Terayama M., S. Kubota, and K. Eguchi. 2014. Encyclopedia of Japanese ants. Asakura Shoten: Tokyo, 278 pp.
- Terayama M., and S. Kubota. 2002. Ants of Tokyo, Japan. ARI 26: 1-32.