- 1 Identification
- 2 Distribution
- 3 Biology
- 4 Castes
- 5 Nomenclature
- 6 References
- 7 References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
Keys including this Species
Latitudinal Distribution Pattern
Latitudinal Range: 30.51666667° to 30.359°.
- Source: AntMaps
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.
Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.
Strumigenys were once thought to be rare. The development and increased use of litter sampling methods has led to the discovery of a tremendous diversity of species. Many species are specialized predators (e.g. see Strumigenys membranifera and Strumigenys louisianae). Collembola (springtails) and other tiny soil arthropods are typically favored prey. Species with long linear mandibles employ trap-jaws to sieze their stalked prey (see Dacetine trap-jaws). Larvae feed directly on insect prey brought to them by workers. Trophallaxis is rarely practiced. Most species live in the soil, leaf litter, decaying wood or opportunistically move into inhabitable cavities on or under the soil. Colonies are small, typically less than 100 individuals but in some species many hundreds. Moist warm habitats and micro-habitats are preferred. A few better known tramp and otherwise widely ranging species tolerate drier conditions. Foraging is often in the leaf litter and humus. Workers of many species rarely venture above ground or into exposed, open areas. Individuals are typically small, slow moving and cryptic in coloration. When disturbed individuals freeze and remain motionless. Males are not known for a large majority of species.
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- hirashimai. Epitritus hirashimai Ogata, 1990: 197, figs. 1-3 (w.) JAPAN. Combination in Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1672; in Strumigenys: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 121. See also: Bolton, 2000: 389.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Bolton (2000) - TL 1.1-1.4, HL 0.40-0.46, HW 0.36-0.40, CI 82-95, ML 0.12-0.14, MI 27-33, SL 0.20-0.24, SI 55-63, PW 0.20-0.24, AL 0.42-0.48 (measurements from Ogata, 1990). Apicodorsal tooth of mandible short-spiniform, longer than apicoventral tooth. Mandible without preapical teeth. Dorsal surface of mandible bare, without longitudinal rows of broad specialised hairs. Anterior clypeal margin with 6 narrowly spoon-shaped hairs; the two pairs closest to the clypeal midline are short and curved or inclined toward the midline. Hairs on leading edge of scape are curved toward the base of the scape. Funicular segments 2 and 3 ( = antennal segments 3 and 4) small but distinct. Orbicular hairs present on dorsal surfaces of scapes and all over the cephalic dorsum; those occurring medially on the clypeus are the same size as those near its lateral or posterior margins. CI < 1 00. Mesonotum in profile not bulging posteriorly over base of propodeum. Dorsolateral margin of propodeum without broadly spoon-shaped hairs that are strongly curved posteriorly.
Bolton (2000) - Holotype worker and paratype workers, JAPAN: Izu Islands, Toshima I., 27.iii.1986 (K. Murata & M. Terayama); paratype workers, JAPAN: Nagasaki Pref., Kuroko I., Hirado, 6.ix.1982 (K. Ogata & S. Eto); Oita Pref., Hazama, 5.xi.1985 (A. Miyata); Nagasaki Pref., Tsushima I., Izuhara-Ariakeyama (Izuhara-Jinjya Shrine), 25.ix.1959 (T. Hidaka, K. Morimoto & T. Karawabata); Amami-Oshima I., Mt. Yuwan, 16.viii.1986 (H. Takamine) (Kyushu University Collection, Australian National Insect Collection, The Natural History Museum, UTK) [examined].
- Baroni Urbani, C. & De Andrade, M.L. 2007. The ant tribe Dacetini: limits and constituent genera, with descriptions of new species. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “G. Doria” 99: 1-191.
- Bolton, B. 1999. Ant genera of the tribe Dacetonini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Nat. Hist. 3 33: 1639-1689 (page 1672, combination in Pyramica)
- Bolton, B. 2000. The ant tribe Dacetini. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute. 65:1-1028. (page 389, redescription of worker)
- Ogata, K. 1990. A new species of the ant genus Epitritus Emery from Japan (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Esakia Spec. Issue 1: 197-199 (page 197, figs. 1-3 worker described)
- Terayama, M.; Lin, C.-C.; Wu, W.-J. 1995. The ant genera Epitritus and Kyidris from Taiwan (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Proc. Jpn. Soc. Syst. Zool. 53: 85-89 (page 86, see also)
References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
- CSIRO Collection
- Choi B.M., K. Ogata, and M. Terayama. 1993. Comparative studies of ant faunas of Korea and Japan. 1. Faunal comparison among islands of Southern Korean and northern Kyushu, Japan. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 48(1): 37-49.
- Guénard B., and R. R. Dunn. 2012. A checklist of the ants of China. Zootaxa 3558: 1-77.
- Hosoichi S., M. Yoshimura, Y. Kuboki, and K. Ogata. 2007. Ants from Yakushima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture. Ari 30: 47-54.
- Hosoishi S., M. Yoshimura, Y. Kuboki, and K. Ogata. 2007. Ants from Yakushima Island , Kagoshima Prefecture. Ari 30: 47-54.
- Matsumura S. and Yamane Sk. 2012. Species composition and dominant species of ants in Jigenji Park, Kagoshima City, Japan. Nature of Kagoshima 38: 99107
- Matsumura S., and S. Yamane. 2012. Species composition and dominant species of ants in Jigenji Park, Kagoshima City, Japan. Nature of Kagoshima 38: 99-107.
- Ogata K. 1990. A new species of the ant genus Epitritus Emery from Japan (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Esakia Spec. Issue 1: 197-199
- Sato T., N. Tsurusaki, K. Hamaguchi, and K. Kinomura. 2010. Ant fauna of Tottori prefecture, Honshu, Japan. Bulletin of the Tottori Prefectural Museum 47: 27-44.
- Terayama M. 1992. Structure of ant communities in East Asia. A. Regional differences and species richness. Bulletin of the Bio-geographical Society of Japan 47: 1-31.
- Terayama M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University. Liberal Arts 17:81-266.
- Terayama M., C. C. Lin, and W. J. Wu. 1995. The ant genera Epitritus and Kyidris from Taiwan (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Proceedings of the Japanese Society of Systematic Zoology 53: 85-89.
- Terayama M., K. Ogata, and B.M. Choi. 1994. Distribution records of ants in 47 prefectures of Japan. Ari (report of the Myrmecologists Society of Japan) 18: 5-17.
- Terayama M., S. Kubota, and K. Eguchi. 2014. Encyclopedia of Japanese ants. Asakura Shoten: Tokyo, 278 pp.
- Terayama M., and S. Kubota. 2002. Ants of Tokyo, Japan. ARI 26: 1-32.
- Teruyama. M. 1994. Ant fauna of Saitama Prefecture, Japan (Supplement). ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 18: 30
- Xu Z. H., and X. G. Zhou. 2004. Systematic study on the ant genus Pyramica Roger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of China. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 29: 440-450.
- Xu Z. and X.-G. Zhou. 2004. Systematic study on the ant genus Pyramica Roger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of China. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 29(3): 440-450
- Yamane S. 2016. How many species of Ants in Amami Islands? (in Japanese). Part 2, chapter 1 in How many species of Ants in Amami Islands? Pp. 92-132.
- Yamane S., S. Ikudome, and M. Terayama. 1999. Identification guide to the Aculeata of the Nansei Islands, Japan. Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press, xii + 831 pp. pp, 138-317.
- Yamane S., Y. Harada, and K. Eguchi. 2013. Classification and ecology of ants. Natural history of ants in Southern Kyushu. 200 pages
- Yamane S.; Ikudome, S.; Terayama, M. 1999. Identification guide to the Aculeata of the Nansei Islands, Japan. Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press, xii + 831 pp. pp138-317.