|Monomorium coecum (junior synonym of Bondroitia lujae)|
(Species Checklist, Species by Country)
A poorly known genus with two species. Bondroitia lujae is the better collected of two species, yet is only represented by a few collections, and Bondroitia saharensis is only known from queens and males.
Bolton (1987): Similar to Diplomorium and separated by the following:
|Masticatory margin of mandible not markedly oblique ; blades overlap but do not cross over at full closure.||Masticatory margin of mandible markedly oblique; blades crossing over at full closure.|
|Clypeus very broad between frontal lobes, antennal insertions widely separated (width across frontal lobes at maximum separation = 0.48 times width of head at that level).||Clypeus very narrow between frontal lobes, antennal insertions closely approximated (width across frontal lobes at maximum separation = 0•30 times width of head at that level).|
|Extreme lateral portion of clypeus not dentate over outer border of mandible.||Extreme lateral portion of clypeus projecting as a low broad triangular tooth over outer basal border of mandible.|
|Eyes present.||Eyes absent.|
|First segment of antennal club (funiculus segment 8) very much smaller than second club segment (funiculus segment 9).||First segment of antennal club (funiculus segment 8) subequal in size to second club segment (funiculus segment 9).|
|Promesonotum convex.||Promesonotum flat.|
|Fore coxae not much larger than the middle and hind coxae.||Fore coxae enormously enlarged when compared to the middle and hind coxae.|
|Propodeal spiracle small, situated approximately at midlength of propodeal side.||Propodeal spiracle enormous, situated at posterior margin of propodeal side.|
|Metapleural glands large.||Metapleural glands small.|
|Peduncle of petiole with an anteroventral process.||Peduncle of petiole lacking an anteroventral process.|
|Mandibles with 4-5 teeth.||Mandibles with3 teeth.|
|Anterior clypeal margin projecting as a broad triangle medially, extensively overhanging the mandibles.||Anterior clypeal margin evenly convex, not overhanging the mandibles.|
|Frontal lobes evenly convex, not pinched in posteriorly behind the antennal insertions.||Frontal lobes convex anteriorly, concave posteriorly, pinched in behind the antennal insertions.|
|Antennae with a strongly defined 3-segmented club.||Antennae with a weakly defined 4-segmented club.|
|Axillae joined across mesothoracic dorsum by a broad shallow groove which separates the mesoscutum and scutellum.||Axillae joined across mesothoracic dorsum by a narrow incised line, the mesoscutum and scutellum fitting tightly together.|
|Metapleural glands large.||Metapleural glands small.|
|Peduncle of petiole with a conspicuous anteroventral process.||Peduncle of petiole without an anteroventral process.|
|Postpetiolar stemite large in profile.||Postpetiolar stemite small in profile.|
|Postpetiole in dorsal view transverse and very broadly attached to the gaster.||Postpetiole in dorsal view subglobular and only narrowly attached to the gaster.|
The real affinities of Bondroitia appear to lie with Anillomyrma. Five apparently good synapomorphies link the workers of the two genera and exclude Diplomorium and other members of the genus-group.
- The mandibular apices cross over at full closure.
- Median portion of clypeus is much narrowed posteriorly so that the antennal insertions are closely approximated. (The mechanism for this may be the approximation of the antennal insertions causing the narrowing of the clypeus, rather than vice versa.)
- Bicarinate nature of the clypeus is secondarily lost.
- Anterior pair of coxae are much enlarged.
- Subpetiolar process is lost from the peduncle.
Other characters, possibly also synapomorphies but just possibly acquired convergently, include loss of eyes and flattening of the promesonotum. A list of apomorphic characters separating Anillomyrma and Bondroitia is given under the former name. The present analysis leads to the conclusion that the characters which have been used in the past to link Bondroitia to Diplomorium are either plesiomorphic or the result of convergence. This includes, in both workers and females, the low PF and dental count, the lack of a bicarinate clypeus (I suspect that whilst Bondroitia has certainly lost the carinae Diplomorium may never have had them), the 11-segmented antennae (where differences in formation of the club imply different developmental routes); and in females alone the venation and relative width of the clypeus between the frontal lobes.
|See images of species within this genus|
Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps
• Antennal segment count: 11 • Antennal club: 3 • Palp formula: 2,2 • Total dental count: 4 (worker), 3(queen) • Spur formula: 0, 0 • Sting: present
These characters are collated in the Worker Morphology table.
• Antennal segment count 12 • Antennal club 0 • Palp formula 2,2 • Total dental count 2 • Spur formula 0, 0
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- BONDROITIA [Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini]
- Bondroitia Forel, 1911c: 300 (footnote) [as subgenus of Monomorium]. Type-species: Monomorium (Martia) coecum (junior synonym of Diplomorium lujae), by monotypy.
- [Bondroitia also described as new, but as subgenus of Diplomorium, by Forel, 1911d: 398; see discussion in Bolton, 1987: 275.]
- Bondroitia subgenus of Diplomorium: Forel, 1917: 243; Emery, 1922e: 194
- Bondroitia junior synonym of Diplomorium: Ettershank, 1966: 98.
- Bondroitia revived status as genus: Bolton, 1987: 275.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Monomorphic myrmicine ants with noticable size-variation in any series but not exhibiting allometric variation. PF 2,2, the palpomeres subcylindrical (lujae). Mandibles with 4 teeth arranged on a markedly oblique masticatory margin, the blades crossing over at full closure. Trulleum small and closed. Eyes absent. Antennae 11-segmented with a 3-segmented apical club. Frontal lobes closely approximated, the posterior portion of the clypeus where it passes between them narrow, only about as wide as one of the frontal lobes or slightly narrower. Median portion of clypeus narrowly transversely convex posteriorly, shallowly concave anteriorly, especially in larger workers. Clypeus without longitudinal carinae. Promesonotum flat dorsally. Metanotal groove impressed on dorsal alitrunk. Metapleural glands small and inconspicuous. Fore coxae enormously enlarged by comparison to mid and hind coxae. Propodeal spiracle enormous, very close to margin of declivity and low on the side, its orifice circular and behind the midlength of the sclerite. Petiole nodiform in profile , the anterior peduncle lacking a ventral process. Postpetiole small, conspicuously less voluminous than the petiole in profile. Postpetiole in dorsal and lateral view narrowly attached to gaster, not articulating high on the first gastral segment. Sting small and inconspicuous. (Diagnosis based on Bondroitia lujae, worker of Bondroitia saharensis is unknown).
Enormously larger than con specific worker, head relatively very small in comparison to body size. PF 2,2 (lujae, saharensis). Mandible with 3 teeth, the blade narrow and with a markedly oblique masticatory margin. Anterior clypeal margin unarmed, evenly shallowly convex and not overhanging the mandibles. Median portion of clypeus evenly transversely convex, not raised nor bicarinate. Clypeus posteriorly broadly inserted between frontal lobes, the outer margins of the latter constricted behind, with a pinched-in appearance behind the lobes themselves. Eyes large and close to midlength of sides of head. Antennae 11 -segmented, the club weakly 4-segmented, not strongly defined but rather the antennomeres gradually increasing in size apically. Mesothoracic axillae small, subtriangular and widely separated on the dorsum. Mesoscutum and scutellum fitting tightly together, not separated by a broad impression. Metapleural glands small and inconspicuous. Venation of forewing with cross-vein m-cu present. Peduncle of petiole lacking an anteroventral process. In profile the postpetiolar sternite a very small sclerite. In dorsal view the postpetiole subglobular and only narrowly attached to the gaster.
Enormously larger than the conspecific worker but smaller than the female. Head very small by comparison with remainder of body. Mandibles bidentate. PF 2,2 (lujae, saharensis). Antennae with 12 segments (lujae) or 13 segments (saharensis), if 12 then the apical is an elongate fusion-segment. First funicular segment globular, only about half the length of either the scape or the second funicular segment. Funiculus from segment 2 to apex gradually tapering, not whip-like. Eyes large, at about the midlength (lujae) or extended anteriorly and reaching the clypeus (saharensis). Head not strongly produced backwards behind the eyes. Notauli absent. Parapsidal grooves present but faint. Axillae small and widely separated. Mesoscutum and scutellum separated only by a narrow slit between the axillae, without a broad impressed groove. Propodeal spiracle very large and circular . Venation as in female. Peduncle of petiole without an anteroventral process. Postpetiolar sternite small in profile, the tergite large and very broadly attached to the gaster.
- Bolton, B. 1987. A review of the Solenopsis genus-group and revision of Afrotropical Monomorium Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 54: 263-452 (page 271, 275, Bondroitia in Myrmicinae, in Solenopsis genus group; Bondroitia revived from synonymy, status as genus and revision of genus)
- Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. (page 106, Bondroitia in Myrmicinae, Solenopsidini)
- Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 209, Bondroitia in Myrmicinae, Solenopsidini)
- Cantone S. 2017. Winged Ants, The Male, Dichotomous key to genera of winged male ants in the World, Behavioral ecology of mating flight (self-published).
- Cantone S. 2018. Winged Ants, The queen. Dichotomous key to genera of winged female ants in the World. The Wings of Ants: morphological and systematic relationships (self-published).
- Emery, C. 1922c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174B: 95-206 (page 192, 194, Bondroitia in Myrmicinae, Solenopsidini; Bondroitia subgenus of Diplomorium)
- Ettershank, G. 1966. A generic revision of the world Myrmicinae related to Solenopsis and Pheidologeton (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Aust. J. Zool. 14: 73-171 (page 81, 98, Bondroitia in Myrmicinae, Monomorium genus group; Bondroitia junior synonym of Diplomorium)
- Forel, A. 1911e. Ameisen des Herrn Prof. v. Ihering aus Brasilien (Sao Paulo usw.) nebst einigen anderen aus Südamerika und Afrika (Hym.). Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 1911: 285-312 (page 300, Bondroitia as subgenus of Monomorium)
- Forel, A. 1911f. Fourmis nouvelles ou intéressantes. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 47: 331-400 (page 398, Bondroitia also described as new, but as subgenus of Diplomorium)
- Forel, A. 1915d. Fauna insectorum helvetiae. Hymenoptera. Formicidae. Die Ameisen der Schweiz. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12(B Beilage: 1-77 (page 38, Bondroitia raised to genus)
- Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 243, Bondroitia in Myrmicinae, Solenopsidini; as subgenus of Diplomorium)
- Hölldobler, B.; Wilson, E. O. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, xii + 732 pp. (page 16, Bondroitia in Myrmicinae, Solenopsidini)
- Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 663, Bondroitia in Myrmicinae, Solenopsidini; as genus)