Camponotus turkestanus

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Camponotus turkestanus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Camponotini
Genus: Camponotus
Species: C. turkestanus
Binomial name
Camponotus turkestanus
André, 1882

Camponotus turkestanus casent0905308 p 1 high.jpg

Camponotus turkestanus casent0905308 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels


This species inhabits desert habitat in southwestern part of its range, and is mainly found in Gobi desert. Pfeiffer el al. (2003), however, recorded this species in steppe of Zorgor, north-central Mongolia. Nocturnal in activity (Aibek & Yamane, 2009).


Ionescu-Hirsch (2009) - This species is recognized by its mainly yellow body with at most the last two gastral segments brownish. It has a sparse pilosity; the gena and ventral surface of the head are devoid of erect setae. The hind tibia is tubular, oval in cross section, and without a longitudinal ridge. Minor workers of pale Tanaemyrmex species may occasionally show the color pattern of C. turkestanus, especially callow workers, but their hind tibia are prismatic with a distinct dorsomedial ridge

This species is easily distinguished from Camponotus tashcumiri by the following characteristics (Aibek & Yamane, 2009):

  • mandibular teeth gradually decreasing in size from the apical to the basal, with the basalmost (7th) tooth the smallest (in the latter 5th tooth the smallest) (Fig. 11 vs. 12)
  • ventral surface of head, and gena without standing hairs (Fig. 7)
  • mid-and hind tibiae below with sparse suberect hairs

Keys including this Species


Near East to central Asia (Radchenko, 1997b).

Although C. turkestanus and Camponotus turkestanicus are distinct species, they are commonly confused, probably due to their similar names. Thus, the occurrence of both C. turkestanus and C. turkestanicus in Jordan needs confirmation (Borowiec & Salata, 2020).

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 49.54° to 35.13333°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, China, Israel, Kazakhstan (type locality), Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Mongolia, Russian Federation, Türkiye, Turkmenistan.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.


Flight Period

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec




The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • turkestanus. Camponotus sylvaticus var. turkestanus André, 1882a: 145 (w.) TURKESTAN.
    • [Misspelled as turcestanus by Dalla Torre, 1893: 253, Emery, 1920c: 6, 10 (in key), Pisarski, 1969b: 305, and others.]
    • Forel, 1904b: 380 (q.); Collingwood, 1961a: 74 (m.).
    • Combination in C. (Tanaemyrmex): Emery, 1925b: 101.
    • Subspecies of sylvaticus: Nasonov, 1889: 11; Dalla Torre, 1893: 253.
    • Subspecies of maculatus: Emery, in Dalla Torre, 1893: 255; Emery, 1896d: 371 (in list); Forel, 1904b: 380; Ruzsky, 1905b: 198; Emery, 1908a: 196; Karavaiev, 1910a: 268; Karavaiev, 1910b: 10; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1923: 240; Ruzsky, 1923: 1; Karavaiev, 1926e: 190.
    • Status as species: Dalla Torre, 1893: 255; Emery, 1920c: 6, 10 (in key); Emery, 1925b: 101; Menozzi, 1933b: 82 (in key); Collingwood, 1961a: 74; Collingwood, 1961b: 289; Pisarski, 1969b: 305; Tarbinsky, 1976: 156 (redescription); Dlussky, 1981a: 17; Pisarski & Krzysztofiak, 1981: 160; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 59; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b: 284 (in key); Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 132; Bolton, 1995b: 128; Radchenko, 1996b: 1201 (in key); Collingwood & Heatwole, 2000: 13; Petrov, 2006: 110 (in key); Schultz, R. et al. 2006: 203; Paknia, et al. 2008: 153; Vonshak, et al. 2009: 39; Ionescu-Hirsch, 2010: 92; Ran & Zhou, 2011: 70; Guénard & Dunn, 2012: 30; Borowiec, L. 2014: 44; Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, 2014: 137.
    • Material of ferganensis referred here by Emery, 1925b: 101; Karavaiev, 1926e: 190.
    • Senior synonym of ferganensis: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 132; Bolton, 1995b: 128; Radchenko, 1997d: 810; Schultz, R. et al. 2006: 203.
    • Senior synonym of flavonitidus: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 132; Bolton, 1995b: 128; Radchenko, 1997d: 810.
    • Senior synonym of ruzskyi Vashkevich: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 132; Bolton, 1995b: 128; Radchenko, 1997d: 810.
  • ferganensis. Camponotus ferganensis Pisarski, 1967: 414.
    • [First available use of Camponotus maculatus subsp. dichrous var. ferganensis Ruzsky, 1905b: 200 (s.w.) KAZAKHSTAN; unavailable (infrasubspecific) name.]
    • Combination in C. (Tanaemyrmex): Bolton, 1995b: 99.
    • Material as unavailable name referred to turkestanus by Emery, 1925b: 101.
    • Status as species: Tarbinsky, 1976: 164 (redescription).
    • Junior synonym of turkestanus: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 132; Bolton, 1995b: 99; Radchenko, 1997d: 810; Schultz, R. et al. 2006: 203.
  • flavonitidus. Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) turkestanus var. flavonitidus Emery, 1925b: 101.
    • [First available use of Camponotus maculatus subsp. dichrous var. flavonitidus Ruzsky, 1905b: 201 (w.) KAZAKHSTAN; unavailable (infrasubspecific) name.]
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Emery, 1908a: 196.
    • Junior synonym of turkestanus: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 132; Bolton, 1995b: 100; Radchenko, 1997d: 810.
  • ruzskyi. Camponotus maculatus subsp. ruzskyi Vashkevich, 1924a: 144 (w.) KAZAKHSTAN.
    • [Unresolved junior primary homonym of Camponotus marginatus var. ruzskyi Emery, 1898c: 150 (Bolton, 1995b: 121).]
    • Junior synonym of turkestanus: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 132; Bolton, 1995b: 121; Radchenko, 1997d: 810.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.


Ionescu-Hirsch (2009) - TL = 6.9–8.1, HL = 1.43–1.76, HW = 1.09–1.27, EL = 0.45–0.57, SL = 1.99–2.15, ML = 2.62–2.81, PW = 0.92–0.98, mTbL = 1.56–1.76, hTbL = 2.23–2.46 (n = 10).


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Aibek U., and S. Yamane. 2009. Taxonomic review of the genus Camponotus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Formicinae) from Mongolia. Biogeography 11: 97-108.
  • Borowiec L. 2014. Catalogue of ants of Europe, the Mediterranean Basin and adjacent regions (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus (Wroclaw) 25(1-2): 1-340.
  • Collingwood, C. A.. "The third Danish Expedition to Central Asia. Zoological Results 27. Formicidae (Insecta) from Afghanistan." Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening 123 (1961): 51-79.
  • Dlussky G. M., O. S. Soyunov, and S. I. Zabelin. 1990. Ants of Turkmenistan. Ashkabad: Ylym Press, 273 pp.
  • Dubovikoff D. A., and Z. M. Yusupov. 2018. Family Formicidae - Ants. In Belokobylskij S. A. and A. S. Lelej: Annotated catalogue of the Hymenoptera of Russia. Proceedingss of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences 6: 197-210.
  • Ghahari H., and C. A. Collingwood. 2013. A study on the ants (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea: Formicidae) from Western Iran. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 48 (1): 155–164.
  • Guénard B., and R. R. Dunn. 2012. A checklist of the ants of China. Zootaxa 3558: 1-77.
  • Ionescu-Hirsch A. 2009. An annotated list of Camponotus of Israel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a key and descriptions of new species. ISRAEL JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY 39: 57–98.
  • Karavaiev V. 1926. Beiträge zur Ameisenfauna des Kaukasus, nebst einigen Bemerkungen über andere palaearktische Formen. (Schluss). Konowia 5: 187-199.
  • Legakis Collection Database
  • Marikovsky P. I. 1979. Ants of the Semireche Desert. [In Russian.]. Alma Ata: Nauka, 263 pp.
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  • Paknia O., A. Radchenko, H. Alipanah, and M. Pfeiffer. 2008. A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Iran. Myrmecological News 11: 151-159.
  • Ran H., and S. Y. Zhou. 2011. Checklist of Chinese Ants: the Formicomorph Subfamilies (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (I). Journal of Guangxi Normal University: Natural Science Edition. 29(3): 65-73.
  • Reznikova Z. I. 2003. Distribution patterns of ants in different natural zones and landscapes in Kazakhstan and West Siberia along a meridian trend. Euroasian Entomological Journal 2(4): 235-342.
  • Ruzsky, M. 1923. Ants of Cheleken Island. Izv. Tomsk. Gos. Univ. 72(2nd p part: 1-6
  • Siberian Zoological Museum. Website available at Accessed on January 27th 2014.
  • Tohme G. 1996. Formicidae. Etude de la diversité biologique n° 4 . Ministère de l’Agriculture à Beyrouth (Eds.). P85-87.
  • Vashkevich A. F. 1924. A new form of ant from Semirechensk Oblast. [In Russian.]. Izvestiya Tomskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta 74: 144-145.
  • Vonshak M., and A. Ionescu-Hirsch. 2009. A checklist of the ants of Israel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Israel Journal of Entomology 39: 33-55.
  • Wu wei, Li Xiao Mei, Guo Hong. 2004. A primary study on the fauna of Formicidae in Urumqi and its vicinities. Arid Zone Research 21(2): 179-182