Cardiocondyla wroughtonii

Every Ant Tells a Story - And Scientists Explain Their Stories Here
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Cardiocondyla wroughtonii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Cardiocondyla
Species: C. wroughtonii
Binomial name
Cardiocondyla wroughtonii
(Forel, 1890)

Cardiocondyla wroughtonii casent0102969 profile 1.jpg

Cardiocondyla wroughtonii casent0102969 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Synonyms

A tramp species probably originating in South East Asia, C. wroughtonii is now widespread in the tropics and subtropics.


At a Glance • Polygynous  

 

Identification

A member of the Cardiocondyla wroughtonii group.

Amongst the Afrotropical region species wroughtonii is recognizable by its small size, relatively short scapes and broad head, subglobular petiole node in dorsal view, and the characteristic shape of the promesonotum in profile. In terms of CI it is approached only by Cardiocondyla sekhemka, but this species is uniformly dark in colour, has much shorter scapes (SI 74), and has a differently shaped mesosoma. (Bolton 1982)

Keys including this Species

Distribution

In Florida this is a relatively uncommon species found as far north and west as Okaloosa County. Nests are usually in hollow stems of dead woody herbs or grass culms, often at the edge of wet areas or in marshes. Pest status: none. First published Florida record: Wheeler 1932 (Deyrup, Davis & Cover, 2000.)

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Afrotropical Region: Kenya, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, United Republic of Tanzania.
Australasian Region: Australia, New Caledonia.
Indo-Australian Region: Borneo, Hawaii, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines.
Malagasy Region: Mayotte.
Nearctic Region: United States.
Neotropical Region: Cuba, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mexico.
Oriental Region: Cambodia, India (type locality), Laos, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.
Palaearctic Region: China, Israel, Japan.


Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Seifert (2003) - C. wroughtonii is reported to nest near to or on the ground; it was found in hollow stems of dead Eulalia grasses (Okinawa), in a dead twig on the ground (New Orleans/USA), between layers of Eugenia jambolana leaves (India), in litter (Sulawesi), and “under leaves in a silk patch” (Tanzania).

Colonies contain less then 500 workers and may have more than one queen. New nests can be formed by fission.

Life History Traits

  • Queen number: polygynous (Frumhoff & Ward, 1992)

Castes

Queen

Ergatoid Male

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • wroughtonii. Emeryia wroughtonii Forel, 1890b: cxi (w.) INDIA (Maharashtra).
    • [Note: holotype is an ergatoid male, not a worker.]
    • Forel, 1903a: 689 (w.q.); Borgmeier, 1937a: 129 (ergatoid m.); Kugler, J. 1984: 7 (m., ergatoid m.).
    • Combination in Cardiocondyla: Forel, 1892h: 461; Forel, 1892i: 313.
    • Status as species: Forel, 1892h: 461; Forel, 1892i: 313; Dalla Torre, 1893: 71; Emery, 1900d: 680; Forel, 1901b: 12; Dahl, 1901: 20; Forel, 1903a: 689; Bingham, 1903: 287; Emery, 1922e: 126; Crawley, 1924: 394; Wheeler, W.M. 1927h: 87; Wheeler, W.M. 1929g: 43; Borgmeier, 1937a: 129; Creighton, 1950a: 199; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 84; Wilson & Taylor, 1967: 56; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1376; Onoyama, 1980: 198; Bolton, 1982: 317 (redescription); Kugler, J. 1984: 7; Collingwood, 1985: 257; Taylor, 1987a: 16; Kugler, J. 1988: 258; Deyrup, et al. 1989: 95; Brandão, 1991: 336; Ogata, 1991b: 99; Morisita, et al. 1992: 32; Bolton, 1995b: 133; Mackay, 1995: 171 (in key)Wu, J. & Wang, 1995: 68; Collingwood & Agosti, 1996: 327; Deyrup, et al. 2000: 297; Mohamed, Zalat, et al. 2001: 50; Zhou, 2001b: 86; Rigato, 2002: 172 (in key); Deyrup, 2003: 44; Imai, et al. 2003: 153; Lin & Wu, 2003: 63; Seifert, 2003a: 269 (redescription); Jaitrong & Nabhitabhata, 2005: 16; Zhou, 2006: 583; Framenau & Thomas, 2008: 67; Terayama, 2009: 179; Vonshak, et al. 2009: 41; Pfeiffer, et al. 2011: 44; Guénard & Dunn, 2012: 41; Hita Garcia, et al. 2013: 208; Borowiec, L. 2014: 49; Ramage, 2014: 172; Bharti, Guénard, et al. 2016: 34; Jaitrong, Guénard, et al. 2016: 34; Deyrup, 2017: 57; Dekoninck, et al. 2019: 1153; Fernández & Serna, 2019: 820.
    • Senior synonym of bimaculata: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1376; Bolton, 1995b: 133; Mohamed, Zalat, et al. 2001: 50; Zhou, 2001b: 86; Seifert, 2003a: 269; Terayama, 2009: 179.
    • Senior synonym of chlorotica: Bolton, 1982: 317; Bolton, 1995b: 133; Zhou, 2001b: 86.
    • Senior synonym of hawaiensis: Wilson & Taylor, 1967: 56; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1376; Bolton, 1982: 317; Kugler, J. 1984: 6; Bolton, 1995b: 133; Mohamed, Zalat, et al. 2001: 50; Zhou, 2001b: 86; Seifert, 2003a: 269.
    • Senior synonym of longispina: Seifert, 2003a: 269.
    • Senior synonym of quadraticeps: Seifert, 2003a: 269.
    • Senior synonym of yamauchii: Seifert, 2003a: 269.
  • bimaculata. Cardiocondyla wroughtoni var. bimaculata Wheeler, W.M. 1929g: 43 (w.q.) TAIWAN.
    • Subspecies of wroughtonii: Wheeler, W.M. 1932a: 7; Smith, M.R. 1944a: 40 (redescription); Creighton, 1950a: 199; Smith, M.R. 1951a: 807; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 84; Smith, M.R. 1958c: 125.
    • Junior synonym of wroughtonii: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1376; Bolton, 1995b: 132; Mohamed, Zalat, et al. 2001: 50; Zhou, 2001b: 86; Seifert, 2003a: 269; Terayama, 2009: 179.
  • chlorotica. Cardiocondyla emeryi subsp. chlorotica Menozzi, 1930b: 84 (w.q.) SOMALIA.
    • Junior synonym of wroughtonii: Bolton, 1982: 317; Bolton, 1995b: 132; Zhou, 2001b: 86.
  • hawaiensis. Cardiocondyla wroughtonii var. hawaiensis Forel, 1899a: 119 (w.) HAWAII.
    • [Misspelled as hawaiiensis by Wheeler, W.M. 1934h: 14,]
    • Forel, 1902h: 440 (q.); Santschi, 1919a: 328 (m.); Smith, M.R. 1944a: 30 (ergatoid m.).
    • Subspecies of wroughtonii: Forel, 1902h: 440; Forel, 1907a: 17; Santschi, 1919a: 328; Emery, 1922e: 126; Wheeler, W.M. 1934h: 14; Wheeler, W.M. 1935g: 21.
    • Status as species: Alayo, 1974: 12 (in key).
    • Junior synonym of wroughtonii: Wilson & Taylor, 1967: 56; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1376; Bolton, 1982: 317; Kugler, J. 1984: 6; Seifert, 2003a: 269.
    • Senior synonym of hawaiensis: Wilson & Taylor, 1967: 56; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1376; Bolton, 1982: 317; Kugler, J. 1984: 6; Bolton, 1995b: 132; Mohamed, Zalat, et al. 2001: 50; Zhou, 2001b: 86; Seifert, 2003a: 269.
  • longispina. Cardiocondyla longispina Karavaiev, 1935a: 88, fig. 14 (w.) INDONESIA (Java).
    • Status as species: Chapman & Capco, 1951: 83; Bolton, 1995b: 132.
    • Junior synonym of wroughtonii: Seifert, 2003a: 269.
  • quadraticeps. Cardiocondyla wroughtonii subsp. quadraticeps Forel, 1912n: 57 (w.) SINGAPORE.
    • [Misspelled as quadriceps by Santschi, 1928h: 125.]
    • Viehmeyer, 1916a: 122 (q.).
    • Subspecies of wroughtonii: Viehmeyer, 1916a: 122; Emery, 1922e: 126; Santschi, 1928h: 125; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 84; Bolton, 1995b: 133.
    • Junior synonym of wroughtonii: Seifert, 2003a: 269.
  • yamauchii. Cardiocondyla yamauchii Terayama, 1999d: 104, figs. 14-19 (w.q.m. ergatoid m.) JAPAN (Okinawa I.).
    • Status as species: Imai, et al. 2003: 153.
    • Junior synonym of wroughtonii: Seifert, 2003a: 269.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Type Material

Description

Worker

Bolton (1982) - TL 1.6-1.9, HL 0.42-0.50, HW 0.34-0.40, CI 79-86, SL 0.30-0.36, SI 81-89, PW 0.24-0.28, AL 0.46--0.55 (25 measured).

Small species with relatively broad head and short scapes, CI and SI above. When laid back on the head the scapes failing to reach the occipital corners in full-face view. Maximum diameter of eye 0.09-0.11, about 0.26-0.30 x HW and with 9-11 ommatidia in the longest row. Pronotal corners rounded in dorsal view. With the alitrunk in profile the promesonotum forming a shallow convexity from front to back but the slope changing sharply posteriorly and becoming quite steep where it slopes down to the strongly impressed metanotal groove; this change in slope very conspicuous in absolute profile. Propodeal dorsum behind the metanotal groove convex in profile, then entering a long downward slope to the propodeal spines. Propodeal spines enlongate and narrow in profile, longer than their basal width; in dorsal view each spine as long as the distance separating their bases. Petiole node in dorsal view subglobular, as broad as or slightly broader than long. Postpetiole distinctly broader than long. Dorsal surfaces of head and alitrunk blanketed by fine shagreening or punctulate shagreening. Petiole and postpetiole finely superficially shagreened. Hairs absent except on mouthparts and gastral apex but a sparse appressed pubescence is present, easiest seen on the first gastral tergite. Head, alitrunk and appendages yellow to yellowish brown, colour of gaster variable. Frequently the gaster is the same colour as the head and alitrunk but in some the sides of the tergite are darker than the dorsum. In others the darker colour has also extended across the posterior portion of the first tergite and in some the gaster is uniformly dark.

References

  • Bolton, B. 1982. Afrotropical species of the myrmecine ant genera Cardiocondyla, Leptothorax, Melissotarsus, Messor and Cataulacus (Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology, 46: 307-370 (page 317, Senior synonym of chlorotica)
  • Borgmeier, T. 1937a. Cardiocondyla emeryi Forel no Brasil, e a descoberta do macho ergatoide desta especie (Hym. Formicidae). Rev. Entomol. (Rio J.) 7: 129-134 (page 129, ergatoid male described)
  • Deyrup, M., Davis, L. & Cover, S. 2000. Exotic ants in Florida. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 126, 293-325.
  • Forel, A. 1890c. Aenictus-Typhlatta découverte de M. Wroughton. Nouveaux genres de Formicides. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 34:cii-cxiv. (page cxi, ergatoid male described)
  • Forel, A. 1892h. Le mâle des Cardicondyla [sic] et la reproduction consanguine perpétuée. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 36: 458-461 (page 461, Combination in Cardiocondyla)
  • Forel, A. 1892o. Les Formicides. [concl.]. In: Grandidier, A. Histoire physique, naturelle, et politique de Madagascar. Volume XX. Histoire naturelle des Hyménoptères. Deuxième partie. Supplèment au 28e fascicule. Paris: Hachette et Cie, pp. 229-280. (page 313, Combination in Cardiocondyla)
  • Forel, A. 1903a. Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part X. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 14: 679-715 (page 689, worker, queen described)
  • Kugler, J. 1984 [1983]. The males of Cardiocondyla Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with the description of the winged male of Cardiocondyla wroughtoni (Forel). Isr. J. Entomol. 17: 1-21 (page 7, male, ergatoid male described; page 6, Senior synonym of bicolor)
  • Seifert, B. 2003. The ant genus Cardiocondyla (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae) - a taxonomic revision of the C. elegans, C. bulgarica, C. batesii, C. nuda, C. shuckardi, C. stambuloffii, C. wroughtonii, C. emeryi, and C. minutior species groups. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien Serie B Botanik und Zoologie. 104:203-338. (page 269, Senior synonym of quadraticeps and yamauchii)
  • Smith, D. R. 1979. Superfamily Formicoidea. Pp. 1323-1467 in: Krombein, K. V., Hurd, P. D., Smith, D. R., Burks, B. D. (eds.) Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Pr (page 1376, Senior synonym of bimaculata)
  • Wilson, E. O.; Taylor, R. W. 1967b. The ants of Polynesia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pac. Insects Monogr. 14: 1-109 (page 56, Senior synonym of hawaiensis)

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Alcantara M. J., S. Modi, T. C. Ling, J. Monkai, H. Xu, S. Huang, and A. Nakamura. 2019. Differences in geographic distribution of ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) between forests and rubber plantations: a case study in Xishuangbanna, China, and a global meta-analysis. Myrmecological News 29: 135-145.
  • Andersen A. N., R. R. Ribbons, M. Pettit, and C. L. Parr. 2014. Burning for biodiversity: highly resilient ant communities respond only to strongly contrasting fire regimes in Australia’s seasonal tropics. Journal of Applied Ecology 51: 1406–1413.
  • Andersen A. N., and B. D. Hoffmann. 2010. Conservation value of low fire frequency in tropical savannas: ants in monsoonal northern Australia. Austral Ecology 36(5): 597-503.
  • Bharti H., Y. P. Sharma, M. Bharti, and M. Pfeiffer. 2013. Ant species richness, endemicity and functional groups, along an elevational gradient in the Himalayas. Asian Myrmecology 5: 79-101.
  • Bolton B. 1982. Afrotropical species of the myrmicine ant genera Cardiocondyla, Leptothorax, Melissotarsus, Messor and Cataulacus (Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 45: 307-370.
  • CSIRO Collection
  • Chapman, J. W., and Capco, S. R. 1951. Check list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Asia. Monogr. Inst. Sci. Technol. Manila 1: 1-327
  • Chen P., Y. Su, S. S. Rao, Y. F. Long, and C. H. Du. 2012. Study on the ant diversity in different Illicium verum stands. Journal of West China Forestry Science 41(1): 60-68.
  • Chen Y. Q., Q. Li, Y. L. Chen, Z. X. Lu, X. Y. Zhou. 2011. Ant diversity and bio-indicators in land management of lac insect agroecosystem in Southwestern China. Biodivers. Conserv. 20: 3017-3038.
  • Cheng D., Z. Chen, and S. Zhou. 2015. An analysis on the ant fauna of Jinzhongshan Nature Reserve in Gunagxi, China. Journal of Guangxi Normal University: Natural Science Edition 33(3): 129.137.
  • Crawley W.C. 1924. Ants from Sumatra, with biological notes by Edward Jacobson. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (9)13: 380-409
  • Dad J. M., S. A. Akbar, H. Bharti, and A. A. Wachkoo. 2019. Community structure and ant species diversity across select sites ofWestern Ghats, India. Acta Ecologica Sinica 39: 219–228.
  • Dahl F. 1901. Das Leben der Ameisen im Bismarck-Archipel, nach eigenen Beobachtungen vergleichend dargestellt. Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berl. 2: 1-70.
  • Eguchi K., T. V. Bui, S. Yamane, H. Okido, and K. Ogata. 2004. Ant faunas of Ba Vi and Tam Dao, North Vietnam (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bull. Inst. Trop. Agr. Kyushu Univ. 27: 77-98.
  • Eguchi K., and S. Yamane. 2003. Species diversity of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in a lowland rainforest, northwestern Borneo. New Entomol. 52(1,2): 49-59.
  • Emery C. Formiche raccolte da Elio Modigliani in Sumatra, Engano e Mentawei. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 40: 661-722.
  • Emery, C.. "Formiche raccolte da Elio Modigliani in Sumatra, Engano e Mentawei." Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria (Genova) (2) 20, no. 40 (1900): 661-722.
  • Fontanilla A. M., A. Nakamura, Z. Xu, M. Cao, R. L. Kitching, Y. Tang, and C. J. Burwell. 2019. Taxonomic and functional ant diversity along tropical, subtropical, and subalpine elevational transects in southwest China. Insects 10, 128; doi:10.3390/insects10050128
  • Forel A. 1901. Formiciden aus dem Bismarck-Archipel, auf Grundlage des von Prof. Dr. F. Dahl gesammelten Materials. Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berl. 2: 4-37.
  • Fukumoto S., Sk. Yamane, and M. Hira. 2016. Records of ants from Yoro-Shima, Amami Gunto, Japan (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Nature of Kagoshima 42: 461–464.
  • Gumawardene, N.R., J.D. Majer and J.P. Edirisinghe. 2008. Diversity and richness of ant species in a lowland wet forest reserve in Sri Lanka. Asian Myrmecology 2:71-83
  • Gunawardene N. R., J. D. Majer, and J. P. Edirisinghe. 2008. Diversity and richness of ant species in a lowland wet forest reserve in Sri Lanka. Asian Myrmecology 2: 71-83.
  • Guénard B., and R. R. Dunn. 2012. A checklist of the ants of China. Zootaxa 3558: 1-77.
  • Harada Y., M. Enomoto, K. Nishimuta, and H. Mizumata. 2015. Ants of the Amami Islands, central Ryukyus, Japan. Nature of Kagoshima 41: 199–208.
  • Herwina H., N. Nasir, Jumjunidang, and Yaherwandi. 2013. The composition of ant species on banana plants with Banana Bunchy-top Virus (BBTV) symptoms in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Asian Myrmecology 5: 151-161.
  • Hosoichi S., M. Yoshimura, Y. Kuboki, and K. Ogata. 2007. Ants from Yakushima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture. Ari 30: 47-54.
  • Hosoishi S., M. Yoshimura, Y. Kuboki, and K. Ogata. 2007. Ants from Yakushima Island , Kagoshima Prefecture. Ari 30: 47-54.
  • Hu C.-H. 2006. Indigenized conservation and biodiversity maintenance on Orchid Island. PhD Thesis, graduate school of the University of Minnesota. 150 pages.
  • Hua Li-zhong. 2006. List of Chinese insects Vol. IV. Pages 262-273. Sun Yat-sen university Press, Guangzhou. 539 pages.
  • Ito, F.; Yamane, S.; Eguchi, K.; Noerdjito, W. A.; Kahono, S.; Tsuji, K.; Ohkawara, K.; Yamauchi, K.; Nishida, T.; Nakamura, K. 2001. Ant species diversity in the Bogor Botanic Garden, West Java, Indonesia, with descriptions of two new species of the genus Leptanilla (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Tropics 10:379-404.
  • Jaitrong W., B. Guenard, E. P. Economo, N. Buddhakala, and S. Yamane. 2016. A checklist of known ant species of Laos (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Asian Myrmecology 8: 1-32. DOI: 10.20362/am.008019
  • Janda M., G. D. Alpert, M. L. Borowiec, E. P. Economo, P. Klimes, E. Sarnat, and S. O. Shattuck. 2011. Cheklist of ants described and recorded from New Guinea and associated islands. Available on http://www.newguineants.org/. Accessed on 24th Feb. 2011.
  • Karavaiev V. 1935. Neue Ameisen aus dem Indo-Australischen Gebiet, nebst Revision einiger Formen. Treubia 15: 57-118.
  • Karmaly K. A.; S. Sumesh, T. P. Rabeesh, and L. Kishore. 2010. A checklist of ants of Thirunelli in Wayanad, Kerala. J. of the Bombay Natural History Society 107(1): 64-67.
  • Lee T. L., and Y. S. Wei. 2005.. Study for the temporal and spatial variation of the ant assemblages as the biological indicator in national parks. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 4(4): 491-496.
  • Li Q., Y. Chen, S. Wang, Y. Zheng, Y. Zhu, and S. Wang. 2009. Diversity of ants in subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in Pu'er City, Yunnan. Biodiversity Science 17(3): 233-239.
  • Li Q., Z. Lu, Z. Wei, M. Yanyan, and F. Ping. 2015. Communities of ground-dwelling ants in different plantation forest in arid-hot valleys of Jinsha river, Yunnan Province, China. Scientia Silvae Sinicae 51(8): 134-142.
  • Li Z.h. 2006. List of Chinese Insects. Volume 4. Sun Yat-sen University Press
  • Lu Z., B. D. Hoffmann, and Y. Chen. 2016. Can reforested and plantation habitats effectively conserve SW China’s ant biodiversity? Biodivers. Conserv. DOI 10.1007/s10531-016-1090-1
  • Lu Z., K. Li, N. Zhang, and Y. Chen. 2016. Effects of lac-corn agroforest ecosystem on ground-dwelling ant diversity and functional groups. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture 24(1): 81-89.
  • Lu Z., K. Li, N. Zhang, and Y. Chen. 2017. Diversity and indicator species of leaf-litter ants in Eucalyptus grandis plantations and secondary natural forests. Forest Research 29(4): 576-580
  • Lu Z., and Y. Chen. 2016. Effects of habitat on ant functional groups: a case study of Luchun County, Yunnan Province, China. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture 24(5): 801-810.
  • Murase K., T. Itioka, M. Nomura, and S. Yamane. 2003. Intraspecific variation in the status of ant symbiosis on a myrmecophyte, Macaranga bancana, between primary and secondary forests in Borneo. Popul. Ecol. 45: 221-226.
  • Narendra A., H. Gibb, and T. M. Ali. 2011. Structure of ant assemblages in Western Ghats, India: role of habitat, disturbance and introduced species. Insect Conservation and diversity 4(2): 132-141.
  • Okita I., K. Murase, T. Sato, K. Kato, A. Hosoda, M. Terayama, and K. Masuko. 2013. The spatial distribution of mtDNA and phylogeographic analysis of the ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Japan. Sociobiology 60(2): 129-134.
  • Pfeiffer M.; Mezger, D.; Hosoishi, S.; Bakhtiar, E. Y.; Kohout, R. J. 2011. The Formicidae of Borneo (Insecta: Hymenoptera): a preliminary species list. Asian Myrmecology 4:9-58
  • Pfeiffer, M., H. Cheng Tuck, and T. Chong Lay. 2008. Exploring arboreal ant community composition and co-ccurrence patterns in plantations of oil palm Elaeis guineensis in Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia. Ecography 31(1): 21-32.
  • Rajan P. D., M. Zacharias, and T. M. Mustak Ali. 2006. Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Fauna of Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary (Karnataka). Conservation Area Series, Zool. Surv. India.i-iv,27: 153-188.
  • Rizali A., M. M. Bos, D. Buchori, Sk. Yamane, and C. H. Schulze. 2008. Ants in tropical urban habitats: the myrmecofauna in a densely populated area of Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. Hayati Journal of Biosciences 15(2): 77-84.
  • Rizali A., M.M. Bos, D. Buchori, Sk. Yamane, C. Hans, and J. Schulze. 2008. Ants in tropical urban habitats: the myrmecofauna in a densely populated area of Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. Hayati Journal of Biosciences 77-84.
  • Sakchoowong W., W. Jaitrong, and K. Ogata. 2009. Comparison of ground-ant diversity between natural forests and disturbed forests along a natural gas pipeline transect in Thong Pha Phum National Park, Kanchanaburi province. Kasetsart J. (Nat. Sci) 43: 64-73.
  • Santschi F. 1928. Fourmis de Sumatra, récoltées par Mr. J. B. Corporaal. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 71: 119-140.
  • Seifert B. 2003. The ant genus Cardiocondyla (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae) - a taxonomic revision of the C. elegans, C. bulgarica, C. batesii, C. nuda, C. shuckardi, C. stambuloffii, C. wroughtonii, C. emeryi, and C. minutior species groups. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien. B, Botanik, Zoologie 104: 203-338.
  • Shimono A., and S. Yamane. 2003. Ant species diversity on Okinoerabu-jima, the Ryukyus, southern Japan. For the Establishment of Remote Islands Study (Kagoshima Univ.) 3: 11-29.
  • Smith M. R. 1944. Ants of the genus Cardiocondyla Emery in the United States. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 46: 30-41.
  • Song Y., Z. Xu, C. Li, N. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Jiang, and F. Mo. 2013. An Analysis on the Ant Fauna of the Nangun river Nature Reserve in Yunnan, China. Forest Research 26(6): 773-780.
  • Terayama M. 1992. Structure of ant communities in East Asia. A. Regional differences and species richness. Bulletin of the Bio-geographical Society of Japan 47: 1-31.
  • Terayama M. 1992. Structure of ant communities in east Asia. 1. Regional differences and species richness. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 47(1): 1-31.
  • Terayama M. 1999. Taxonomic studies of the Japanese Formicidae, Part 6. Genus Cardiocondyla Emery. Memoirs of the Myrmecological Society of Japan 1: 99-107.
  • Terayama M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University. Liberal Arts 17:81-266.
  • Terayama M., S. Kubota, and K. Eguchi. 2014. Encyclopedia of Japanese ants. Asakura Shoten: Tokyo, 278 pp.
  • Varghese T. 2004. Taxonomic studies on ant genera of the Indian Institute of Science campus with notes on their nesting habits. Pp. 485-502 in : Rajmohana, K.; Sudheer, K.; Girish Kumar, P.; Santhosh, S. (eds.) 2004. Perspectives on biosystematics and biodiversity. Prof. T.C. Narendran commemoration volume. Kerala: Systematic Entomology Research Scholars Association, xxii + 666 pp.
  • Viehmeyer H. 1912. Ameisen aus Deutsch Neuguinea gesammelt von Dr. O. Schlaginhaufen. Nebst einem Verzeichnisse der papuanischen Arten. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Königlichen Zoologischen und Anthropologische-Ethnographischen Museums zu Dresden 14: 1-26.
  • Wang W. R., S. Q. Zhang, and Z. H. Xu. 2012. A faunistic and taxonomic study of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Shenzhen Municipality. Journal of Southwest Forestry University 32(1): 64-73.
  • Way M. J., and B. Bolton. 1997. Competition between ants for coconut palm nesting sites. Journal of Natural History 31: 439-455.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1929. Ants collected by Professor F. Silvestri in Formosa, the Malay Peninsula and the Philippines. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria della Reale Scuola Superiore d'Agricoltura. Portici 24: 27-64.
  • Xu F. F., and J. Chen. 2009. Comparison of the Differences in Response to the Change of the Extrafloral Nectar-ant-herbivore Interaction System Between a Native and an Introduced Passiflora Species. Acta Botanica Yunnanica 31(6): 543-550.
  • Yamane S. 2013. A Review of the ant fauna of the Krakatau Islands, Indonesia. Bull. Kitakyushu Mus. Nat. Hist. Hum. Hist. Ser: A, 11: 1-66
  • Yamane S. 2016. How many species of Ants in Amami Islands? (in Japanese). Part 2, chapter 1 in How many species of Ants in Amami Islands? Pp. 92-132.
  • Yamane S., S. Ikudome, and M. Terayama. 1999. Identification guide to the Aculeata of the Nansei Islands, Japan. Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press, xii + 831 pp. pp, 138-317.
  • Yamane S.; Ikudome, S.; Terayama, M. 1999. Identification guide to the Aculeata of the Nansei Islands, Japan. Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press, xii + 831 pp. pp138-317.
  • Yusah K. M., T. M. Fayle, G. Harris, and W. A. Foster. 2012. Optimizing diversity assesment protocols for high canopy ants in tropical rain forest. Biotropica 44(1): 73-81.
  • Zhang N. N., Y. Q. Chen, Z. X. Lu, W. Zhang, and K. L. Li. 2013. Species diversity, community structure difference and indicator species of leaf-litter ants in rubber plantations and secondary natural forests in Yunnan, southwestern China. Acta Entomologica Sinica 56(11): 1314-1323.
  • Zhang Xiang, and Hou You-Ming. 2009. Five new record genus and thirty one new records species of ants (Hymenoptera; Formicidae) in Fujian Province. Journal of Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University 38(5): 479-484.
  • Zhou S.-Y. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press, Guilin, China, Guilin, China. 255 pp.
  • Zryanin V. A. 2011. An eco-faunistic review of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). In: Structure and functions of soil communities of a monsoon tropical forest (Cat Tien National Park, southern Vietnam) / A.V. Tiunov (Editor). – M.: KMK Scientific Press. 2011. 277 р.101-124.