Pachycondyla procidua

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Pachycondyla procidua
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Ponerinae
Tribe: Ponerini
Genus: Pachycondyla
Species: P. procidua
Binomial name
Pachycondyla procidua
Emery, 1890

Pachycondyla procidua casent0915460 p 1 high.jpg

Pachycondyla procidua casent0915460 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Workers from French Guiana were collected in the plant Phyllodendron linnei.


From Mackay and Mackay (2010): The shape of the anterior face of the postpetiole distinguishes P. procidua from most of the others in the genus. Pachycondyla procidua can be separated from the common Pachycondyla harpax, in which the two faces of the postpetiole form an angle, by the presence of the metanotal suture on the dorsum of the mesosoma and by the pronotal carina, which overhangs the side of the pronotum, both of which are reduced or absent in workers of P. harpax. Mayaponera cernua and Neoponera concava have concave anterior faces of the postpetiole, but both species have malar carinae, which are absent in P. procidua.



Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 3.75° to -12.85302778°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname (type locality).

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.


This species has been collected in the tropical forest. (Mackay and Mackay 2010)




The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • procidua. Pachycondyla procidua Emery, 1890a: 75 (q.) FRENCH GUIANA.
    • Type-material: holotype queen.
    • Type-locality: French Guiana: Cayenne.
    • Type-depository: MNHN.
    • Kempf, 1964e: 50 (w.).
    • Combination in Pachycondyla (Pachycondyla): Emery, 1901a: 45.
    • Combination in Neoponera: Schmidt, C.A. & Shattuck, 2014: 151.
    • Combination in Pachycondyla: Esteves & Fisher, 2021: 103.
    • Status as species: Dalla Torre, 1893: 35; Emery, 1911d: 75; Santschi, 1921g: 87; Kempf, 1964e: 50; Kempf, 1972a: 175; Bolton, 1995b: 308; Mackay, Mackay, et al. 2008: 196; Mackay & Mackay, 2010: 486 (redescription); Bezděčková, et al. 2015: 124; Feitosa, 2015c: 99; Fernández & Guerrero, 2019: 534.
    • Distribution: Brazil, French Guiana, Peru, Suriname.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Taxonomic Notes

Esteves & Fisher (2021): The Neotropical Pachycondyla procidua was previously assigned to Neoponera by Schmidt and Shattuck (2014). Yet, the species lacks a stridulitrum and distinct arolia (Fig. 12A, B; Kempf 1964). Additionally, it presents the above characters that discriminate Neoponera and Pachycondyla from ponerines in the neotropics (Fig. 11; Kempf 1964; Mackay and Mackay 2010). The metanotal sulcus is distinct (Fig. 11B), while the petiole is scale-like (Fig. 11C, D). The two specimens we examined present aristate hypopygial setae. The setae seem fragile, and in one specimen, most were abraded by the cleaning procedure that preceded SEM imaging (Fig. 12C, D).



From Mackay and Mackay (2010): The worker is a relatively large (13 mm) dark reddish brown species. The mandibles have approximately nine teeth, the anterior border of the clypeus is broadly convex when viewed directly from above, it can be seen to be slightly depressed medially when viewed obliquely. The eye is small (maximum diameter 0.4 mm) and is located slightly more than 1 diameter from the anterior border of the head (side view). The malar carina is absent. The scape extends slightly past the posterior lateral corner of the head. The pronotal shoulder is formed into a sharp carina, which overhangs the side of the pronotum. The metanotal suture is slightly depressed below the level of the remainder of the mesosoma and definitely breaks the sculpture when seen from above. The propodeal spiracle is elongated. The propodeum is rounded along the posterior lateral edge. The anterior face of the petiole is nearly vertical and slightly concave and meets the broadly rounded posterior face near the anterior edge of the apex. The anterior face of the postpetiole (first segment of the gaster) is concave and forms a sharp angle with the dorsal face of the postpetiole.

Erect hairs are moderately abundant and in general are short (up to 0.5 mm on the dorsum of the mesosoma, most hairs < 0.3 mm in length). The scape has several short (up to 0.2 mm) erect hairs in addition to fine suberect pubescence. Appressed golden pubescence is moderately abundant on the head, the mesosoma and more abundant on the dorsum of the gaster.

Most surfaces are punctate and moderately to strongly shining. The mandibles are mostly smooth and glossy with scattered punctures, the dorsum of the head and surface of the scape are densely and finely punctate but shining. The mesosoma has scattered punctures, but most surfaces are at least moderately glossy, the mesopleuron, and the side and lower posterior face of the propodeum have poorly defined striae. The petiole is finely punctate and mostly glossy, as is the dorsum of the gaster. The metasternal process consists of two broad lobes with tiny teeth at the apex.


From Mackay and Mackay (2010): The female is a large (total length 14 mm) dull black ant with dark brown appendages. The mandible has eight well-developed teeth, which are approximately equal in size, except for the apicalmost tooth, which is slightly larger. The preapical tooth is smaller than the others. The anterior border of the clypeus is broadly convex; the head is widest at the level of the eye and the posterior margin is strongly concave. The head length and head width are 3 mm. The malar carina is absent and the eye (maximum diameter 0.6 mm) is located approximately ½ diameter from the anterior margin of the head. The ocelli (maximum diameter 0.15 mm) are located approximately two diameters apart. The scape (2.5 mm) nearly reaches the posterior lateral corner of the head. The pronotal carina is well developed and slightly overhangs the side of the pronotum, especially anteriorly. The propodeal spiracle is slit-shaped. The petiole is narrow when viewed in profile with a slightly concave anterior face and a broadly rounded posterior face and meet at an angle at the anterior edge. The subpetiolar process forms a broad lobe anteriorly. The anterior face of the postpetiole is strongly concave and forms an acute angle anteriorly with the dorsal face.

Erect hairs are present on the mandibles, clypeus, dorsal and ventral surfaces of the head, sides of the head, shaft of the scape, dorsum of the mesosoma, legs, dorsum of the petiole, the subpetiolar process and all surfaces of the gaster. Appressed golden pubescence is present on most surfaces but does not hide the sculpture.

The dorsal surface of the mandible is smooth and glossy with scattered punctures. The head is punctate, as is the mesosoma, the petiole and the gaster, with most surfaces only weakly shining.


Males are not known for this species.

Type Material

French Guiana: Cayenne (Mackay and Mackay 2010)


From the Latin word prociduus, meaning fallen down or prostrate, referring to the form of the anterior face of the postpetiole. (Mackay and Mackay 2010)


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Emery C. 1890. Voyage de M. E. Simon au Venezuela (Décembre 1887 - Avril 1888). Formicides. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (6)10: 55-76.
  • Fernández F., and T. M. Arias-Penna. 2008. Las hormigas cazadoras en la región Neotropical. Pp. 3-39 in: Jiménez, E.; Fernández, F.; Arias, T.M.; Lozano-Zambrano, F. H. (eds.) 2008. Sistemática, biogeografía y conservación de las hormigas cazadoras de Colombia. Bogotá: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, xiv + 609 pp.
  • Fernández, F. and S. Sendoya. 2004. Lista de las hormigas neotropicales. Biota Colombiana Volume 5, Number 1.
  • Fichaux M., B. Bechade, J. Donald, A. Weyna, J. H. C. Delabie, J. Murienne, C. Baraloto, and J. Orivel. 2019. Habitats shape taxonomic and functional composition of Neotropical ant assemblages. Oecologia 189(2): 501-513.
  • Franco W., N. Ladino, J. H. C. Delabie, A. Dejean, J. Orivel, M. Fichaux, S. Groc, M. Leponce, and R. M. Feitosa. 2019. First checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of French Guiana. Zootaxa 4674(5): 509-543.
  • Groc S., J. H. C. Delabie, F. Fernandez, M. Leponce, J. Orivel, R. Silvestre, Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, and A. Dejean. 2013. Leaf-litter ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a pristine Guianese rainforest: stable functional structure versus high species turnover. Myrmecological News 19: 43-51.
  • Kempf W. W. 1964e. Miscellaneous studies on Neotropical ants. III. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Studia Entomologica 7: 45-71.
  • Mackay, W.P. and E.E. MacKay. 2010. The systematics and biology of the New World ants of the genus Pachycondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Edwin Mellen Press Lewiston, NY
  • Santschi F. 1921. Ponerinae, Dorylinae et quelques autres formicides néotropiques. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 54: 81-103.