| Pseudomyrmex veneficus|
(Wheeler, W.M., 1942)
An acacia nesting species of western Mexico.
|At a Glance||• Polygynous|
Ward (1993) - The small size (worker HW < 0.96; queen HW 0.84-0.96, n=12), conspicuous suberect pubescence on the propodeum and petiole, and black coloration of the head and gaster distinguish workers and queens of P. veneficus. The related species, Pseudomyrmex flavicornis, is larger (worker HW > 0.98, queen HW 1.12-1.19) with a broader and more robust petiole. Workers and queens of P. flavicornis also lack the sublucid head and conspicuous suberect pubescence characteristic of P. veneficus. Pseudomyrmex mixtecus is somewhat intermediate between these two - it has the head sculpture and pubescence typical of P. flavicornis but approaches P. veneficus in size (worker and queen head widths overlapping, although only slighter in the queens where HW 0.96-l.01 (n=8) in P. mixtecus) and petiolar dimensions.
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
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Ward (1993) - P. veneficus has a limited distribution in western Mexico (Sinaloa to Michoacan) where colonies occupy Acacia hindsii and, at one locality, A. collinsii. Janzen (1973) gives a detailed description of the ecology and behavior of this highly polygynous, effectively unicolonial, species whose colonies are among the largest of all social insects (containing millions of workers and several hundred thousand queens).
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.
- veneficus. Pseudomyrma belti subsp. venefica Wheeler, W.M. 1942: 162 (w.q.m.) MEXICO. Combination in Pseudomyrmex: Kempf, 1972a: 216. Senior synonym of venifica Enzmann: Brown, 1949a: 42. Raised to species: Ward, 1989: 439. See also: Ward, 1993: 152.
- venifica. Pseudomyrma belti subsp. venifica Enzmann, E.V. 1944: 81 (w.q.) MEXICO. Junior synonym of venefica: Brown, 1949a: 42.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Ward (1993) - measurements (n=12). HL 0.95-1.04, HW 0.85-0.95, MFC 0.045-0.073, CI 0.88-0.95, REL 0.44-0.47, REL2 0.47-0.52, OOI 1.26-2.30, VI 0.66-0.75, FCI 0.051-0.081, SI 0.43-0.46, SI2 0.85-0.94, NI 0.58-0.65, PLI 0.60-0.67, PWI 0.58-0.67, PPWI 1.35-1.73.
Similar to Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus (q.v.) except as follows. Smaller (LHT 0.69-0.80), with broad head (Cl > 0.87); frontal carinae separated by basal scape width or less (FCI2 0.40-0.60); petiole short (PL 0.43-0.54) and relatively narrow (see PWI values) with somewhat rounded posterolateral angles. Head densely punctulate, subopaque to sublucid, with weak silvery reflectance. Overlying rugulo-punctate sculpture on propodeum weak and ill-defined. Standing pilosity variable in abundance, becoming rather short (0.10 mm) and sparse in southern populations. Pubescence thick and conspicuous, suberect on some surfaces especially the propodeum and petiole; suberect pubescence on petiolar dorsum contrasting with the appressed pubescence on the postpetiole. Very dark greyish-brown to black, parts of the mesosoma and petiole sometimes with lighter yellowish brown (more consistently so in the queen).
Syntype workers, males, queens, Escuinapa, Sinaloa, Mexico (J. H. Batty) (American Museum of Natural History, Museum of Comparative Zoology) [Examined]. One Museum of Comparative Zoology syntype worker here designed LECTOTYPE.
Pseudomyrma belti subsp. venifica Enzmann 1945:81. Syntype workers, queens, Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico (C. H. T. Townsend) (Museum of Comparative Zoology) [Examined].
- Brown, W. L., Jr. 1949a. Synonymic and other notes on Formicidae (Hymenoptera). Psyche (Camb.) 56: 41-49 (page 42, Senior synonym of venifica Enzmann)
- Kempf, W. W. 1972b. Catálogo abreviado das formigas da regia~o Neotropical. Stud. Entomol. 15: 3-344 (page 216, Combination in Pseudomyrmex)
- Ward, P. S. 1989a. Systematic studies on pseudomyrmecine ants: revision of the Pseudomyrmex oculatus and P. subtilissimus species groups, with taxonomic comments on other species. Quaest. Entomol. 25: 393-468 (page 439, Raised to species)
- Ward, P. S. 1993. Systematic studies on Pseudomyrmex acacia-ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Pseudomyrmecinae). J. Hym. Res. 2: 117-168 (page 152, see also)
- Ward, P.S. 2017. A review of the Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus and Pseudomyrmex goeldii species groups: acacia-ants and relatives (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 4227: 524–542 (doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4227.4.3).
- Wheeler, W. M. 1942. Studies of Neotropical ant-plants and their ants. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 90: 1-262 (page 162, worker, queen, male described)