Foragers are common from March to October with a peak in September. Workers were commonly found foraging on Calotropis procera (Aiton) W. T. Aiton (Apocynaceae) (Sharaf et al., 2013).
Sharaf et al. (2013) - The high degree of polymorphism and the large intra- and interspecific variation among the species of Camponotus make determinations often difficult. Camponotus xerxes is closely related to Camponotus fellah but can be distinguished by the absence of erect setae on the ventral head surface, whereas in C. fellah there are 1–10 setae (Ionescu-Hirsch, 2009).
Ionescu-Hirsch (2009) - Ionescu-Hirsch (2009) - This species has affinities with the Camponotus thoracicus species complex and is closely related to Camponotus fellah, according to Radchenko (1997b). According to Collingwood and Agosti (1996) and Radchenko (1997b), C. xerxes can be distinguished from C. fellah only by the absence of erect setae on the ventral surface of the head.
Keys including this Species
This species was reported from Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Oman (Collingwood 1985; Collingwood and Agosti 1996, Collingwood et al. 2011) (Sharaf et al., 2013).
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
Collingwood and Agosti (1996) - This is the commonest of the larger Camponotus species in Saudi Arabia. This species has a wide range from Central Asia to the Middle East and Arabia but does not seem to occur in the south west of Saudi Arabia or in Yemen where it is probably replaced by the similar C. fellah. The delimitation of these two large nocturnal foraging species however is not too clear and both species occur in similar habitats in the United Arab Emirates.
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.
- xerxes. Camponotus maculatus r. xerxes Forel, 1904f: 424 (w.q.) IRAN. Karavaiev, 1910b: 9 (s.); Forel, 1913d: 434 (m.). Combination in C. (Tanaemyrmex): Emery, 1925b: 99. Synonym of cognatocompressus: Karavaiev, 1910b: 9. Revived from synonymy and raised to species: Pisarski, 1967: 414. Senior synonym of irakensis: Radchenko, 1996b: 1201 (in key); Radchenko, 1997d: 811.
- irakensis. Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) compressus subsp. irakensis Menozzi, 1927e: 117, fig. 1 (s.q.m.) IRAQ. Junior synonym of xerxes: Radchenko, 1996b: 1201 (in key).
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Ionescu-Hirsch (2009) - TL = 13.3–17.0, HL = 3.16–4.49, HW = 2.50–4.38, EL = 0.86–1.05, SL = 3.48–3.67, ML = 4.53–5.94, PW = 1.84–2.58, mTbL = 3.36–3.79, hTbL = 4.61–5.23 (n = 10).
- Aneed, I.K., Augul, R.S., Al-Bahadyli, L.J.M. 2016. Redescription and some polymorphism notes in workers of Camponotus xerxes Forel, 1904 (Hymenoptera Formicidae; Formicinae). Bulletin of the Iraq Natural History Museum, 14, 141-159.
- Collingwood, C. A. and D. Agosti. 1996. Formicidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of Saudi Arabia (part 2). Fauna Saudi Arabia. 15:300-385.
- Emery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183: 1-302 (page 99, Combination in C. (Tanaemyrmex))
- Forel, A. 1904g. Dimorphisme du mâle chez les fourmis et quelques autres notices myrmécologiques. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 48: 421-425 (page 424, worker, queen described)
- Forel, A. 1913d. Fourmis de la faune méditerranéenne récoltées par MM. U. et J. Sahlberg. Rev. Suisse Zool. 21: 427-438 (page 434, male described)
- Ionescu-Hirsch, A. 2010 (2009). An annotated list of Camponotus of Israel, with a key and descriptions of new species. Israel Journal of Entomology. 39:57-98.
- Karavaiev, V. 1911a . Ameisen aus Transkaspien und Turkestan. Tr. Rus. Entomol. Obshch. 39: 1-72 (page 9, soldier described, Synonym of cognatocompressus)
- Khalini-Moghadam, A., Borowiec, L., Nemati, A. 2019. New records of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from the Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari Province of Iran with taxonomic comments. Polish Journal of Entomology 88: 163–182 (DOI 10.2478/pjen-2019-0013).
- Pisarski, B. 1967a. Fourmis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) d'Afghanistan récoltées par M. Dr. K. Lindberg. Ann. Zool. (Warsaw) 24: 375-425 (page 414, Revived from synonymy and raised to species)
- Radchenko, A. G. 1996e. A key to the ant genus Camponotus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in Palearctic Asia. Zool. Zh. 7 75: 1195-1203 (page 1201, Senior synonym of irakensis (in key))
- Radchenko, A. G. 1997d. Review of ants of the subgenera Tanaemyrmex, Colobopsis, Myrmamblis, Myrmosericus, Orthonotomyrmex and Paramyrmamblis of the genus Camponotus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Asian Palearctic. Zool. Zh. 76: 806-815 (page 811, Senior synonym of irakensis)
- Sharaf, M. R.; Abdel-Dayem, M. S.; Al Dhafer, H. M.; Aldawood, S. A. 2013. The ants (Hymenoptera:formicidae) of Rawdhat Khorim Nature Preserve, Saudi Arabia, with description of a new species of the genus Tetramorium Mayr. Zootaxa 3709:565-580.