Solenopsis fugax

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Solenopsis fugax
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Solenopsidini
Genus: Solenopsis
Species: S. fugax
Binomial name
Solenopsis fugax
(Latreille, 1798)

Solenopsis fugax casent0173147 profile 1.jpg

Solenopsis fugax casent0173147 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Subspecies
Synonyms

The taxonomy of this and related taxa needs to be fully revised (Rigato & Toni, 2011).

Identification

Yellow to brownish yellow; sides of head slightly curved. Body and appendages with numerous hairs, head and alitrunk distinctly punctulate but shining. Projecting clypeal teeth short but distinct. Length 1.5-3 mm (Collingwood 1979).

Distribution

Species widespread in Europe; it has been reported also from NW Africa, Anatolia and Central Asia (Rigato & Toni, 2011).

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Afghanistan, Albania, Armenia, Austria, Balearic Islands, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Channel Islands, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (type locality), Georgia, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Iberian Peninsula, Iran, Israel, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Republic of Korea, Republic of Macedonia, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, San Marino, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.


Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Collingwood (1979) - This species lives in populous colonies often deep in the ground or under large stones and is seldom seen above ground. It is often associated with larger Formica and Lasius species predating on their brood, but nests also occur in isolation. It is mainly predatory and carnivorous but has also been recorded attending root aphids. This ant is aggressive and despite its small size will attack other ants and sting fiercely. Queens and males are very large relative to the workers and are found in August and September with flights occurring on warm days in September.

Fungi

This species is a host for the fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum (a pathogen) (Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012).

Castes

Queen

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • fugax. Formica fugax Latreille, 1798: 46 (w.q.m.) FRANCE. Hauschteck, 1961: 221 (k.); Santschi, 1910e: 649 (gynandromorph). Combination in Diplorhoptrum: Mayr, 1855: 450; Baroni Urbani, 1968a: 63; Kutter, 1977c: 102; Bernard, 1978a: 574; Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 539; Collingwood, 1979: 64; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 168; in Solenopsis: Mayr, 1862: 751; Emery, 1909a: 30; Emery, 1922e: 201; Bernard, 1967: 182; Bolton, 1987: 285; Bolton, 1995b: 387. Senior synonym of flavidula: Mayr, 1855: 450; Smith, F. 1855b: 121; of orientalis: Karavaiev, 1910b: 49; Karavaiev, 1934: 122; Dlussky & Zabelin, 1985: 221; of kasalinensis, pontica: Dlussky & Zabelin, 1985: 221; of latroides, scythica: Dlussky & Radchenko, 1994: 109; Arakelian, 1994: 50; provisional senior synonym of: avium, balachowskyi, banyulensis, delta, duboscqui, furtiva, insulare, laevithorax, monticola, nicaeensis, pilosum, provincialis, pygmaea, richardi, robusta, rugosa, tertialis: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 492-493. Current subspecies: nominal plus cypridis, emesa, furtiva, karaki, tisiphone. See also: Donisthorpe, 1915d: 102; Boven, 1977: 85; Bolton, 1987: 285; Radchenko, 2007: 33; Galkowski, et al. 2010: 153, 160.
  • flavidula. Myrmica flavidula Nylander, 1849: 43 (w.) RUSSIA. Junior synonym of fugax: Mayr, 1855: 450; Smith, F. 1855b: 121. See also: Radchenko, 2007: 33.
  • latroides. Solenopsis orbula var. latroides Ruzsky, 1905b: 514 (w.) CAUCASUS. Subspecies of latro: Santschi, 1934e: 568. Raised to species: Arnol'di, 1948: 211. Junior synonym of fugax: Arakelian, 1994: 50.
  • kasalinensis. Solenopsis fugax var. kasalinensis Emery, 1909a: 31 (w.) KAZAKHSTAN. [First available use of Solenopsis fugax subsp. orientalis var. kasalinensis Ruzsky, 1905b: 513; unavailable name.] Junior synonym of fugax: Dlussky & Zabelin, 1985: 221.
  • debilior. Solenopsis (Diplorhoptrum) fugax var. debilior Santschi, 1934e: 583 (w.q.m.) FRANCE (Corsica). Junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse, 1990a: 138.
  • furtiva. Solenopsis (Diplorhoptrum) fugax var. furtiva Santschi, 1934e: 584 (w.q.m.) FRANCE. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 492.
  • pontica. Solenopsis (Diplorhoptrum) fugax var. pontica Santschi, 1934e: 584, fig. 37 (w.q.m.) RUSSIA. Junior synonym of fugax: Dlussky & Zabelin, 1985: 221.
  • scythica. Solenopsis (Diplorhoptrum) fugax var. scythica Santschi, 1934e: 585 (w.) RUSSIA. Junior synonym of fugax: Arakelian, 1994: 50.
  • banyulensis. Solenopsis emeryi subsp. banyulensis Bernard, 1950a: 10 (w.q.m.) FRANCE. Raised to species: Bernard, 1967: 177; Bernard, 1978a: 556. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 492.
  • duboscqui. Solenopsis duboscqui Bernard, 1950a: 10, figs. 2, 9 (w.m.) FRANCE. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • laevithorax. Solenopsis laevithorax Bernard, 1950a: 12, figs. (w.m.) FRANCE. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • monticola. Solenopsis monticola Bernard, 1950a: 13, figs. 2, 4, 11 (w.q.m.) FRANCE. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • nicaeensis. Solenopsis nicaeensis Bernard, 1950a: 11, figs. 2, 5 (w.q.m.) FRANCE. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 492.
  • provincialis. Solenopsis provincialis Bernard, 1950a: 12 (w.) FRANCE. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • pygmaea. Solenopsis pygmaea Bernard, 1950a: 15 (w.) FRANCE. Bernard, 1978a: 571 (q.m.). [Junior primary homonym of pygmaea Forel, 1901e: 345.] Replacement name: tertialis Ettershank, 1966: 144.
  • richardi. Solenopsis richardi Bernard, 1950a: 15 (w.) FRANCE. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • robusta. Solenopsis robusta Bernard, 1950a: 12 (w.) FRANCE. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • rugosa. Solenopsis rugosa Bernard, 1950a: 14 (w.m.) FRANCE. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • balachowskyi. Solenopsis balachowskyi Bernard, 1959: 346, fig. 3 (w.q.m.) FRANCE. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • tertialis. Solenopsis tertialis Ettershank, 1966: 144. Replacement name for pygmaea Bernard, 1950a: 15. [Junior primary homony of pygmaea Forel, 1901e: 345.] Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • avium. Diplorhoptrum avium Bernard, 1978a: 568, fig. 15 (w.q.m.) FRANCE. Combination in Solenopsis: Bolton, 1995b: 386. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • delta. Diplorhoptrum delta Bernard, 1978a: 565, figs. 8, 13 (w.m.) FRANCE. Combination in Solenopsis: Bolton, 1995b: 387. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • insulare. Diplorhoptrum insulare Bernard, 1978a: 569 (w.q.m.) FRANCE. Combination in Solenopsis: Bolton, 1995b: 388. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.
  • pilosum. Diplorhoptrum pilosum Bernard, 1978a: 562, fig. 1, 15 (w.q.m.) FRANCE. Combination in Solenopsis: Bolton, 1995b: 390. Provisional junior synonym of fugax: Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 493.

Description

Karyotype

  • 2n = 22 (Japan) (Imai, 1969).
  • n = 11, 2n = 22 (Switzerland) (Hauschteck, 1961).

References

  • Arakelian, G. R. 1994. Fauna of the Republic of Armenia. Hymenopterous insects. Ants (Formicidae). Erevan: Gitutium, 153 pp. (page 50, Senior synonym of latroides and scythica)
  • Arnol'di, K. V.; Dlussky, G. M. 1978. Superfam. Formicoidea. 1. Fam. Formicidae - ants. Pp. 519-556 in: Medvedev, G. S. (ed.) Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR. Vol. 3. Hymenoptera. Part 1. Opredeliteli Faune SSSR 119:3-584. (page 539, Combination in Diplorhoptrum)
  • Atanassov, N.; Dlussky, G. M. 1992. Fauna of Bulgaria. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Fauna Bûlg. 22: 1-310 (page 168, Combination in Diplorhoptrum)
  • Baroni Urbani, C. 1968a. Studi sulla mirmecofauna d'Italia. V. Aspetti ecologici della Riviera del M. Cònero. Boll. Zool. 35: 39-76 (page 63, Combination in Diplorhoptrum)
  • Bernard, F. 1967a [1968]. Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp. (page 182, Combination in Solenopsis)
  • Bernard, F. 1978a [1977]. Révision des Diplorhoptrum de France, fourmis plus différenciées par l'écologie que par leurs formes (Hym. Formicidae). Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (n.s.) 13: 543-577 (page 574, Combination in Diplorhoptrum)
  • Bolton, B. 1987. A review of the Solenopsis genus-group and revision of Afrotropical Monomorium Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 54: 263-452 (page 285, Combination in Solenopsis)
  • Bolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. (page 387, Combination in Solenopsis)
  • Boven, J. K. A. van. 1977. De mierenfauna van België (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Acta Zool. Pathol. Antverp. 67: 1-191 (page 85, see also)
  • Casevitz-Weulersse, J. 1990b. Étude systématique de la myrmécofaune corse (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) (Première partie). Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Sect. A Zool. Biol. Écol. Anim. (4) 12: 135-163 (page 138, Senior synonym of debilior)
  • Collingwood, C. A. 1979. The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomol. Scand. 8: 1-174 (page 64, Combination in Diplorhoptrum)
  • Dlussky, G. M.; Radchenko, A. G. 1994a. Ants of the genus Diplorhoptrum (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from the central Palearctic. Zool. Zh. 73(2 2: 102-111 (page 109, Senior synonym of latroides and scythica)
  • Dlussky, G. M.; Zabelin, S. I. 1985. Ant fauna (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the River Sumbar Basin (south-west Kopetdag). Pp. 208-246 in: Nechaevaya, N. T. (ed.) The vegetation and animal world of western Kopetdag. Ashkhabad: Ylym, 278 pp. (page 221, Senior synonym of orientalis, Senior synonym of kasalinensis and pontica)
  • Donisthorpe, H. 1915f. British ants, their life-history and classification. Plymouth: Brendon & Son Ltd., xv + 379 pp. (page 102, see also)
  • Emery, C. 1909a. Beiträge zur Monographie der Formiciden des paläarktischen Faunengebietes. (Hym.) Teil VI. Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 1909: 19-37 (page 30, Combination in Solenopsis)
  • Espadaler, X., Santamaria, S. 2012. Ecto- and Endoparasitic Fungi on Ants from the Holarctic Region. Psyche Article ID 168478, 10 pages (doi:10.1155/2012/168478).
  • Galkowski, C., Casevitz-Weulersse, J. & Cagniant, H. 2010. Redescription de Solenopsis fugax (Latreille, 1798) et notes sur les Solenopsis de France. Revue française d’Entomologie (NS) 32 (3-4): 151-163.
  • Hauschteck, E. 1961. Die Chromosomen von fünf Ameisenarten. Rev. Suisse Zool. 68: 218-223 (page 221, karyotype described)
  • Karavaiev, V. 1910. Nachtrag zu meinen "Ameisen aus Transcaspien und Turkestan". Rus. Entomol. Obozr. 9: 268-272 (page 49, Senior synonym of orientalis)
  • Karavaiev, V. 1934. The fauna of the family Formicidae (ants) of the Ukraine. Tr. Inst. Zool. Biol. Vseukr. Akad. Nauk Ser. 1 Pr. Syst. Faun. 1934: 1-164 (page 122, Senior synonym of orientalis)
  • Kutter, H. 1977c. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Insecta Helv. Fauna 6: 1-298 (page 102, Combination in Diplorhoptrum)
  • Latreille, P. A. 1798. Essai sur l'histoire des fourmis de la France. Brive: F. Bourdeaux, 50 pp. (page 46, worker, queen, male described)
  • Mayr, G. 1855. Formicina austriaca. Beschreibung der bisher im österreichischen Kaiserstaate aufgefundenen Ameisen, nebst Hinzufügung jener in Deutschland, in der Schweiz und in Italien vorkommenden Arten. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ver. Wien 5: 273-478 (page 450, Combination in Diplorhoptrum, Senior synonym of flavidula)
  • Mayr, G. 1862. Myrmecologische Studien. Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 12: 649-776 (page 751, Combination in Solenopsis)
  • Rigato, F.; Toni, I. 2011. Short notes 21. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Pp. 873-882 in: Nardi, G.; Whitmore, D.; Bardiani, M.; Birtele, D.; Mason, F.; Spada, L.; Cerretti, P. (eds.) 2011. Biodiversity of Marganai and Montimannu (Sardinia). Research in the framework of the ICP Forests network. Conservazione Habitat Invertebrati, 5. Sommacampagna, Verona: Cierre Edizioni, 896 pp.
  • Smith, F. 1855b. Essay on the genera and species of British Formicidae. [concl.]. Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (2) 3: 113-135 (page 121, Senior synonym of flavidula)