Formica japonica

Every Ant Tells a Story - And Scientists Explain Their Stories Here
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Formica japonica
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Formicini
Genus: Formica
Species: F. japonica
Binomial name
Formica japonica
Motschoulsky, 1866

Formica japonica casent0280389 p 1 high.jpg

Formica japonica casent0280389 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Synonyms

Mizuno et al. (2018) studied interactions between this ant and the myrmecophytic butterfly Lampides argyrognomon. In Korea this is the most common species within the Formica fusca group, being easy to see even in city areas (Dong & Kim, 2019).


At a Glance • Polygynous  

 

Photo Gallery

Identification

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: China, Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, Japan (type locality), Mongolia, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation.


Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Mizuno et al (2018) - Myrmecophilous lycaenid caterpillars have close relationships with their ant hosts by means of various myrmecophilous organs, most of which are usually lost after pupation. However, some lycaenid species, including Lycaeides argyrognomon, maintain such relationships at the pupal stage and go so far as to pupate in ant nests. This invokes the hypothesis that these myrmecophilous lycaenid pupae might have alternative tactics to retain myrmecophilous interactions without ant attacks. Camponotus japonicus, Formica japonica, and Lasius japonicus exhibited distinctive aggressive behaviors against ant cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) from different colonies of the same species but few attacks against the crude extract of L. argyrognomon pupae. GC-MS analysis revealed that the pupal cuticular lipids contain not only CHCs but also several long-chained aliphatic aldehydes, including 1-octacosanal and 1-triacontanal, which are absent from larval cuticular lipids. With the addition of synthesized 1-octacosanal and 1-triacontanal to ant CHCs from different colonies of the same species, the aggressive behavior decreased in C. japonicus, and the duration of physical contact shortened in C. japonicus and F. japonica. However, the behavior of L. japonicus remained unaffected after the addition of those aldehydes. These results suggest that the pupae-specific cuticular aldehydes of L. argyrognomon suppress ant aggression even after the loss of certain myrmecophilous organs, though the effects varied depending on the attending ant species. Since L. argyrognomon occasionally pupate in the nests of C. japonicus in the field, the lycaenids might be better adapted to associations with C. japonicus than with the other two ant species studied.

Association with Other Organisms

This species is a host for the ant Polyergus samurai (a slave maker).

Life History Traits

  • Queen number: polygynous (Rissing and Pollock, 1988; Frumhoff & Ward, 1992)

Castes

Worker

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • japonica. Formica japonica Motschoulsky, 1866: 183 (w.) JAPAN. Imai, 1966: 119 (k.). Combination in F. (Serviformica): Emery, 1925b: 247. Subspecies of fusca: Emery, 1909b: 197; Emery, 1923: 62; Wheeler, W.M. 1929f: 10; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1929a: 19; Stitz, 1934: 9. Revived status as species: Dlussky, 1967a: 78; Collingwood, 1976: 305; Wu, 1990: 5; Kupyanskaya, 1990: 185. Senior synonym of nipponensis: Emery, 1909b: 197; Karavaiev, 1927b: 111; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1929a: 19.
  • nipponensis. Formica fusca var. nipponensis Forel, 1900e: 270 (w.) JAPAN. Forel, 1901h: 66 (q.). Subspecies of fusca: Ruzsky, 1925b: 44. Junior synonym of japonica: Emery, 1909b: 197; Karavaiev, 1927b: 111; Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1929a: 19.

Description

Karyotype

  • n = 27, 2n = 54 (Japan) (Imai & Yosida, 1964; Imai, 1966; Imai, 1969; Crozier, 1975).

References

  • Collingwood, C. A. 1976a. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from North Korea. Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 68: 295-309 (page 305, Revived status as species)
  • Dlussky, G. M. 1967a. Ants of the genus Formica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, g. Formica). Moskva: Nauka Publishing House, 236 pp. (page 78, Revived status as species)
  • Dong, M.-S., Kim, S.-K. 2019. Morphological comparison of the male genitalia of Formica fusca group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Korea (doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.20086.34887).
  • Emery, C. 1909b. Beiträge zur Monographie der Formiciden des paläarktischen Faunengebietes. (Hym.) Teil VII. Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 1909: 179-204 (page 197, Variety/subspecies of fusca, Senior synonym of nipponensis)
  • Emery, C. 1923a. Einige exotische Ameisen des Deutschen Entomologischen Institutes. Entomol. Mitt. 12: 60-62 (page 62, Variety /subspecies of fusca)
  • Emery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183: 1-302 (page 247, Combination in F. (Serviformica))
  • Imai, H. T. 1966b. The chromosome observation techniques of ants and the chromosomes of Formicinae and Myrmicinae. Acta Hymenopterol. 2: 119-131 (page 119, karyotype described)
  • Karavaiev, V. 1927c [1926]. Myrmekologische Miszellen. Ezheg. Zool. Muz. 27: 104-112 (page 111, Senior synonym of nipponensis)
  • Kupyanskaya, A. N. 1990a. Ants of the Far Eastern USSR. Vladivostok: Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 258 pp. (page 185, Revived status as species)
  • Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, N. N. 1929a. Die Ameisen des Süd-Ussuri-Gebietes. Zool. Anz. 83: 16-34 (page 19, Variety /subspecies of fusca, Senior synonym of nipponensis)
  • Mizuno, T., Y. Hagiwara, and T. Akino. 2018. Chemical tactic of facultative myrmecophilous lycaenid pupa to suppress ant aggression. Chemoecology. 28:173-182. doi:10.1007/s00049-018-0270-8
  • Motschoulsky, V. de. 1866. Catalogue des insectes reçus du Japon. Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. 39: 163-200 (page 183, worker described)
  • Stitz, H. 1934. Schwedisch-chinesische wissenschaftliche Expedition nach den nordwestlichen Provinzen Chinas, unter Leitung von Dr. Sven Hedin und Prof. Sü Ping-chang. Insekten gesammelt vom schwedischen Arzt der Expedition Dr. David Hummel 1927-1930. 25 (page 9, Variety /subspecies of fusca)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1929g. Some ants from China and Manchuria. Am. Mus. Novit. 361: 1-11 (page 10, Variety /subspecies of fusca)
  • Wu, J. 1990. Taxonomic studies on the genus Formica L. of China (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). For. Res. 3: 1-8 (page 5, Revived status as species)

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Abe T. 1971. On the food sharing among four species of ants in a sandy grassland. I. Food and foraging behaviour. Japanese Journal of Ecology 20(6): 219-230.
  • Akino T., M. Terayama, S. Wakamura, and R. Yamaoka. 2002. Intraspecific variation of cuticular hydrocarbon composition in Formica japonica Motschoulsky (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zoological Science 19: 1155-1165.
  • Anonymous. A list of ants collected at Bandai, Fukushima Prefecture by the members of the Myrmecological Society of Japan in 1992. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 18: 31
  • Azuma M. 1950. On the myrmecological-fauna of Tomogashima, Kii Prov., with the description of new genus and new species. Hyogo Biology 1:34-37.
  • Azuma M. 1955. A list of ants (Formicidae) from Hokkaido Is. Hyogo Biology 3:79-80.
  • Azuma M. 1977. On the myrmecological-fauna of Mt. Rokko, Hyogo, with description of a new species (Formicidae, Hymenoptera). Hyogo Biology 7:112-118.
  • Cheng D., Z. Chen, and S. Zhou. 2015. An analysis on the ant fauna of Jinzhongshan Nature Reserve in Gunagxi, China. Journal of Guangxi Normal University: Natural Science Edition 33(3): 129.137.
  • Choi B.-M. 1987. Taxonomic study on ants (Formicidae) in Korea (1). On the genus Monomorium. Journal of the Institute of Science Education (Cheongju National Teachers' College) 11:17-30.
  • Choi B.M. 1985. Study on distribution of ants (Formicidae) from Korea (1). Formic fauna in Mt. Songni. Cheongju Sabom Taehak Nonmunjip (Journal of Cheongju National Teachers' College) 22:401-437.
  • Choi B.M. 1986. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea. Journal of Chongju National Teacher College 23: 317-386.
  • Choi B.M. 1988. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (5) Ant fauna in Is. Kanghwado. Chongju Sabom Taehak Nonmunjip (Journal of Chongju National Teacher' College) 25: 217-231.
  • Choi B.M. 1996. Distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (16) - Ant fauna from Chollabukdo. Korean J. Soil. Zoology 1(1): 5-23.
  • Choi B.M. 1996. Distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (16): Ant fauna from Chollabukdo. Korean Journal of Soil Zoology 1(1): 5-23.
  • Choi B.M. 1997. Distribution of Ants (Formicidae) in Korea (18). Ants Fauna in island Paekryongdo and Taechongdo. Journal of Chongju National University of Education 34: 119-138.
  • Choi B.M., Bang, J.R. 1992. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (9). Ant fauna in Mt. Togyusan. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 31:101-112.
  • Choi B.M., K. Ogata, and M. Terayama. 1993. Comparative studies of ant faunas of Korea and Japan. 1. Faunal comparison among islands of Southern Korean and northern Kyushu, Japan. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 48(1): 37-49.
  • Choi B.M., Kim, C.H., Bang, J.R. 1993. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (13). A checklist of ants from each province (Do), with taxonomic notes. Cheongju Sabom Taehakkyo Nonmunjip (Journal of Cheongju National University of Education) 30: 331-380.
  • Choi B.M., and H.S. Lee. 1999. Studies on the distribution ants in Korea (21) - Ant fauna in Kwanaksan. Korean J. Soil Zoology 4(1): 1-4.
  • Choi B.M., and J. R. Bang. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (12): the analysis of ant communities in 23 islands. Journal of Cheongju National University of Education 30:317-330.
  • Choi B.M., and Park, K.S. 1991. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (7). Ant fauna in Mt. Kyeryongsan. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 30: 80-85.
  • Collingwood C. A. 1962. Some ants (Hym. Formicidae) from north-east Asia. Entomologisk Tidskrift 83: 215-230.
  • Collingwood C. A. 1976. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from North Korea. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 68:
  • Emery C. 1923. Einige exotische Ameisen des Deutschen Entomologischen Institutes. Entomologische Mitteilungen. Berlin-Dahlem 12: 60-62.
  • Eto S., and K. Ogata. 1983. Ants of Hirado Island, Kyushu. Bulletin of the Nagasaki Prefecture Biological Group 25: 7-11.
  • Forel A. 1901. Formiciden des Naturhistorischen Museums zu Hamburg. Neue Calyptomyrmex-, Dacryon-, Podomyrma- und Echinopla-Arten. Mitt. Naturhist. Mus. Hambg. 18: 43-82.
  • Fukumoto S. 2009. Ants at the Korimoto Campus of Kagoshima University. Nature of Kagoshima 35: 67. (+Personal communication 19 May 20014)
  • Gulzar A. 2014. Classification and Distribution of ants in Kashgar, Xinjiang. Master's Thesis Shaanxi Normal University, 75 pages.
  • Guénard B., and R. R. Dunn. 2012. A checklist of the ants of China. Zootaxa 3558: 1-77.
  • Ha S.J, S.J. Park, and B.J. Kim. 2002. Comparative ant faunas between Seonyudo and seven other islands of West Sea in Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology 32(2): 75-79.
  • Hagimoto. M. and K. Wada. 1994. Temporal change in the home range of the ant Formica (Serviformica) japonica Motschulsky; an observation and experiment in a grassland. Abstracts of papers presented at 34th Annual Meeting of the Myrmecological Society of Japan held on August 19th to 23th, 1991, at the Ginowan Seminar House, Okinawa Prefecture. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 18: 34
  • Harada Y. 1997. Ants from the Koshiki islands, Kagoshima-ken, southern Japan. Ari 21: 1-4.
  • Harada Y. 2000. Ant fauna of the forest floor of the Koshikijima Islands, Kagoshima-ken, southern Japan. Ari 24: 4-11.
  • Harada Y., H. Yadori, M. Yoneda, R. Takinami, K. Nagahama, Y. Matsumoto, A. Oyama, S. Maeda, and S. Yamane. 2009. Ant fauna of Tanegashima (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Nankiseibutu, the Nanki Biological Society 51(1): 15-21.
  • Harada Y., K. Nishikubo, K. Matsumoto, M. Matsuda, Y. Inazawa, Y. Ozono, S. Koto, N. Kawaguchi, and S. Yamane. 2011. Ant fauna of Japanese beech (Fagus crenata) forests in southwestern Japan. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 66: 115-127.
  • Harada Y., K. Tashiro, K. Ebihara, H. Yadori, M. Yoneda, R. Takinami, K. Nagahama, and K. Hayashi. 2008. Ant fauna of the lavas of Sakurajima Volcano, Southern Japan. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 63: 205-215.
  • Harada Y., S. Haruguchi, T. Iwasaki, K. Onishi, Y. Tashiro, and Sk Yamane. 2010. Ants from Japanese cherry trees, Prunus x yedoensis, in public parks in Kagoshima, southwestern Japan. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 65: 169-179.
  • Hayashida K. 1957. Ecological distribution of ants in Sapporo and vicinity. (Preliminary report.). Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University. Series VI. Zoology 13:173-177.
  • Hayashida K. 1961. Studies on the ecological distribution of ants in Sapporo and its vicinity (1 et 2). Insectes Sociaux 7: 125-162.
  • Hayashida K. 1964. Studies on the ecological distribution of ants in Kutchan and its adjacent area. Journal of the Sapporo Otani Junior College 2: 107-129.
  • Hayashida K. 1971. Vertical distribution of ants in the southern part of the Hidaka mountains. [In Japanese.]. Memoirs of the National Science Museum (Tokyo) 4:29-38.
  • Hayashida K. 1972. Ecological survey on ants in Nakagawa Experiment Forest of Hokkaido University. Res. Bull. Exper. Forests, Coll. Agr., Hokkaido Univ. 29: 25-36.
  • Hayashida K., and S. Maeda. 1960. Studies on the ecological distribution of ants in Akkeshi. Journ. Sc. Hokkaido Univ., IV. Zool., 14 (3) : 305-319.
  • Hisamatsu M. 2004. List of Hymenoptera Recorded in Ibaraki Prefecture. Bulletin of Ibaraki Nature Museum 7: 125-164.
  • Hosaka T., L. Di, K. Eguchi, and S. Numata. 2019. Ant assemblages on littered food waste and food removal rates in urban–suburban parks of Tokyo. Basic and Applied Ecology 37: 1–9.
  • Hosoichi S., M. M. Rahman, T. Murakami, S. H. Park, Y. Kuboki, and K. Ogata. 2019. Winter activity of ants in an urban area of western Japan. Sociobiology 66(3): 414-419.
  • Hosoichi S., W. Tasen, S. H. Park. A. Le Ngoc, Y. Kuboki, and K. Ogata. 2015. Annual fire resilience of ground-dwelling ant communities in Hiraodai Karst Plateau grassland in Japan. Entomological Science 18: 254–261.
  • Hosoishi S. 2006. Ant fauna of Noko Island. pp99-107. In: The floristic and faunistic surveys of the Noko Island.
  • Hosoishi S., M. Yoshimura, Y. Kuboki, and K. Ogata. 2007. Ants from Yakushima Island , Kagoshima Prefecture. Ari 30: 47-54.
  • Ichikawa A. 1999. Records of ants observed from several localities of Osaka Prefecture, Japan, -1. Ari 23: 1-3.
  • Ichinose K. 1990. The Ant Fauna of the Tomakomai Experiment Forest, Hokkaido University (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with Notes on the Nuptial Season. Research Bulletins of College Experiment Forests 47(1) 137-144.
  • Ikeshita Y., A. Gotoh, K. Yamamoto, N. Taniguchi, and F. Ito. 2007. Ants collected in Mt. Linoyama, Marugame, Kagawa Prefecture (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Kagawa Seibutsu 34: 59-62.
  • Ito. F., Kondoh. M., Kubota. S., Masuko. K., Morishita. M., Murata. K., Ogata. K., Sato. T., Takamine. H., Yamaoka. H. and Kondoh. M. 1986. A list of ants collected at Akiyoshi-dai (Yamaguchi-ken) by the members of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) in 1985. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 14: 5-6
  • Iwata, Kouki, Eguchi, Katsuyuki and Yamane, Seiki. 2005. A Case Study on Urban Ant Fauna of Southern Kyusyu, Japan, with Notes on a New Monitoring Protocol (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Asia-Pacific Entomol. 8(3):263-272.
  • Johnson R. Personnal Database. Accessed on February 5th 2014 at http://www.asu.edu/clas/sirgtools/resources.htm
  • Kawahara Y., S. Hosoyamada, and S. Yamane. 1999. Ant fauna of the Terayama Station for Education and Research on Nature, Kagoshima University. Bulletin of the Faculty of Education, Kagoshima University. Natural Science 50: 147-156.
  • Kholin S. K. and A. N. Kupianskaya. 2003. The international biodiversity observation year (IBOY): the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of forest ecosystems of the Primorye region. Chteniya Pamyati Alekseya Ivanovicha Kurentsova 14: 50-55.
  • Kim B., Ryu D., Park S., and J. Kim. 1994. Systematic study on ants from coasts of Korean Peninsula (Hym: Formicidae). Korean journal of entomology 24: 293-309.
  • Kim B.J. 1996. Synonymic list and distribution of Formicidae (Hymenoptera) in Korea. Entomological Research Bulletin Supplement 169-196.
  • Kim B.J., K.G. Kim, D.P. Ryu, J.H. Kim. 1995. Ants of Chindo island in Korea (Hymenoptera; Formicidae). The Korean Journal of Systematic Zoology 11(1): 101-113.
  • Kim B.J., K.G. Kim, J.H. Kim, S.J. Park. Ants from Mt. Mirok. Korean J. Soil Zoology 2(2): 115-128.
  • Kim B.J., S.J. Park, and J.H. Kim. 1996. Ants from Naejangsan national park (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Korean J. Soil. Zoology &(2): 120-133.
  • Kim B.J.; Kim, K.G.; Lim, K.H. 1993. Systematic study of ants from Chejudo province. Korean Journal of Entomology 23: 117-109
  • Kim B.J.; Kim, K.G.; Lim, K.H. 1993. Systematic study of ants from Chejudo province. Korean Journal of Entomology 23: 117-110
  • Kim B.J.; Kim, K.G.; Lim, K.H. 1993. Systematic study of ants from Chejudo province. Korean Journal of Entomology 23: 117-111
  • Kim C.H., B.M. Choi, and J.R. Bang. 1992. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (8)-Ant fauna in 10 islands, Chollanam-do. Korean J. Appl. Entomol. 31(4): 345-359.
  • Kim C.H.; Choi, B.M. 1987. On the kinds of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and vertical distribution in Jiri Mountain. Korean Journal of Plant Protection 26:123-132.
  • Kim K.I., C.H. Kim, and B. Choi. 1989. The ant fauna of the southern shore in Gyeongsangnamdo, Korea. Journal of Gyeongsang Nat. Univ. 28(2): 213-226.
  • Kim et al. 1993. Systematic study of ants from Chejudo Province. Koran Journal of Entomology 23(3): 117-141.
  • Kim, Byung-Jin, Ky-Gyong Kim, Dong-Pyo Ryu and Joong-Hyon Kim. 1995. The Korean Journal of Systematic Zoology. 11(1):101-113.
  • Kondoh M. 1988. Ant communities at the submountain zone of Seimoh, Gumma Prefecture, in relation to vegetation types. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 16: 2
  • Kondoh M. 1994. Ant fauna of reclimed lands at Ichikawa and its vicinity, Chiba Prefecture. Ari 17. 8-9
  • Kondoh M., and Y. Kitazawa. 1984. Ant communities of the campus of UOEH and in an adjacent natural forest. Journal of UOEH 6(3): 221-234.
  • Kuboki Y., K. Ogata, and E. Kasuya. 2006. Note on the bait trapping method. ANeT Newsletter 8: 16-19
  • Kubota. M. 1986. Note on Polyergus samurai YANO, which lost their plunder by the attack of Lasius niger (LINNAEUS). ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 14: 6-7
  • Kubota. S., and M. Terayama. 1988. Ant fauna of Tokyo. (1) A list of ants collected at the parks. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 16: 14-16
  • Kupianskaia A.N. 1990. Murav'I (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) Dal'nego Vostoka SSSR (1989). Vladivostok. 258 pages.
  • Kwon T. S. 2012. Korean ant atlas. Korea Forest Research Institute 162 pages.
  • Kwon T. S. 2015. Ant assemblages along the Baekdudaegan Mountain Range in South Korea: Human roads and temperature niche. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity 8: 152-157.
  • Kwon T.S., C. M. Lee, J. H. Chun, J. H. Sung, and S. K. Kim. 2011. Ants in Hongneung forest. Korea Forest Research Institute, 92 pages.
  • Lelej A. S. 2012. Annotated catalogue of the Insects of Russian Far East. Volume 1. Hymenoptera. Dalnauka: Vladivostok. 635 p.
  • Li Q., Y. Chen, S. Wang, Y. Zheng, Y. Zhu, and S. Wang. 2009. Diversity of ants in subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in Pu'er City, Yunnan. Biodiversity Science 17(3): 233-239.
  • Li X., D. Hao, and Y. Huang. 2011. Ant species diversity at piedmont of Zijin Mountain in Nanjing. Journal of Nanjing Forestry University ( Natural Science Edition) 35(5): 55-58.
  • Li Z.h. 2006. List of Chinese Insects. Volume 4. Sun Yat-sen University Press
  • Maeto K. and S. Sato. 2004. Impacts of forestry on ant species richness and composition in warm-temperate forests of Japan. Forest Ecology and Management 187: 213–223.
  • Manabe K. 1994. Ants of the shrine forest in Fukuoka Prefecture (First report; Ants of lowland). Ari 17: 6.
  • Manabe K. 1994. Ants of the shrine forest in Fukuoka Prefecture (first report; ants of lowland). Ari 18: 6.
  • Manabe K. 1994. Ants of the shrine forest in Fukuoka Prefecture (second report; ants of mountain zone). Ari 17: 8.
  • Maruyama M., F. M. Steiner, C. Stauffer, T. Akino, R. H. Crozier, and B. C. Schlick-Steiner. 2008. A DNA and morphology based phylogenetic framework of the ant genus Lasius with hypotheses for the evolution of social parasitism and fungiculture. BMC Evolutionary Biology 8:Article 237 (doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-237).
  • Menozzi C. 1940. Contribution à la faune myrmécologique du Japon. Mushi. 13: 11-12.
  • Minato M., T. Kameyama, F. Ito, and T. Itino. 1996. A preliminary report of ant fauna in Gagawa Prefecture. Ari 20: 9-13.
  • Mizutani A. 1979. A myrmecofaunal survey at Hiyama Experiment Forest, Hokkaido University. Research Bulletin of the College Experiment Forests, Hokkaido University 36:509-516.
  • Mizutani A. 1979. A myrmecofaunal survey at Hiyama Experiment Forest, Hokkaido University. Research Bulletins of the College Experiment Forests Hokkaido University 36(2): 509-516.
  • Morisita M. 1945. Ants of the southern part of Hokkaido, Japan. [In Japanese.] Mushi 16:21-28. 
  • Morisita, M. 1941. Notes on Camponotus herculeanus subsp. vagus var. yessensis Teranishi (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). [In Japanese.]. Mushi 13:94. [1941-02-28] PDF 127445
  • Morisita, M. 1941. Notes on Camponotus herculeanus subsp. vagus var. yessensis Teranishi (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). [In Japanese.]. Mushi 13:95. [1941-02-28] PDF 127445
  • Ogata K., Y. Hirashima, T. Miura, Y. Maeta, K. Yano, and J. Ko. 1985. Ants collected in pine forests infested by the pine needle gall midge in Korea (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Esakia (23): 159-163.
  • Ogata. K., Touyama, Y. and Choi, B. M. 1994. Ant fauna of Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 18: 18-25
  • Okamura S., and S. Yamane. 1994. Seasonal abundance of an aphid, Melanaphis yasumatsui (Homoptera) occurring on Miscanthus on the Taisho lava of the Sakurajima volcano, Southern Japan, with reference to the relation with ant community. Japanese Journal of Entomology 62(3): 607-615.
  • Paik W.H. 1984. A checklist of Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Korea. Korean J. Plant Prot. 23(3): 193-195.
  • Park S. H., S. Hosoishi, K. Ogata, and Y. Kuboki. 2014. Clustering of ant communities and indicator species analysis using self-organizing maps. Comptes Rendus Biologies http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crvi.2014.07.003
  • Park S.J., K.G. Kim, J.H. Kim, B.J. Kim. 1998. Ants from Chiaksan National Park. Korean J. Soil Zoology 3(1): 25-34.
  • Park S.J., K.G. Kim, J.H. Kim, and B.J. Kim. 1998. Ants from the Seoraksan National Park. The Korean Journal of Systematic Zoology 14(4): 429-439.
  • Park S.J., and B.J. Kim. 2002. Faunal comparison of ants among Cheongsando and other islands of South Sea in Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology 32(1): 7-12.
  • Park, Seong, Joon and Byung, and Kim, Jin. 2002. Faunal Comparison of Ants among Cheongsando and Other Islands of South Sea in Korea. Korean Jornal of Entomology. 32(1):7-12.
  • Radchenko, A. 2005. Monographic revision of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of North Korea. Annales Zoologici (Warsaw) 55: 127-221.
  • Radchenko, A. 2005. Monographic revision of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of North Korea. Annales Zoologici 55(2): 127-221.
  • Ran H., and S. Y. Zhou. 2012. Checklist of chinese ants: formicomorph subfamilies (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) II. Journal of Guangxi Normal University: Natural Science Edition 30(4): 81-91.
  • Sakai H. 2002. Reproductive flight season of Japanese ants. Ari 26: 33-39.
  • Santschi F. 1937. Fourmis du Japon et de Formose. Bulletin et Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 77: 361-388.
  • Shimana Y., and S. Yamane. 2009. Geogrpahical distribution of Technomyrmex brunneus Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the western part of the mainland of Kagoshima, South Kyushu, Japan. Ari 32: 9-19.
  • Sonobe, R. 1974a. On the occurrence of pseudogyne of Formica japonica Motschulsky (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in Japan. Kontyû 42:402
  • Staab M., A. Schuldt, T. Assmann, H. Bruelheide, and A.M. Klein. 2014. Ant community structure during forest succession in a subtropical forest in South-East China. Acta Oecologia 61: 32-40.
  • Stitz H. 1934. Schwedisch-chinesische wissenschaftliche Expedition nach den nordwestlichen Provinzen Chinas, unter Leitung von Dr. Sven Hedin und Prof. Sü Ping-chang. Insekten gesammelt vom schwedischen Arzt der Expedition Dr. David Hummel 1927-1930. 25. Hymenoptera. Ark. Zool. 27A(1) 11: 1-9.
  • Sunamura E., K. Nishisue, M. Terayama, and S. Tatsuki. 2007. Invasion of Four Argentine Ant Supercolonies into Kobe Port, Japan: Their Distributions and Effects on Indigenous Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 50: 659-674.
  • Tamura H., Y. Nakamura, K. Yamauchi, and T. Fujikawa. 1969. An ecological survey of soil fauna in Hidaka-Mombetsu, Southern Hokkaido. Journal of the Faculty of Science Hokkaido University, Zoology 17(1): 17-57.
  • Tang J., Li S., Huang E., Zhang B. and Chen Y.. 1995. Hymenoptera: Formicidae (1). Economic Insect Fauna of China 47: 1-133.
  • Tang Jue, Li Shen, Huang Enyou, Zhang Benyue. 1985. Notes on ants from Zhoushan Islands Zhejiang (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).  Journal of Zhejiang University (Agric.& Life Sci.) 3.
  • Taniwaki T., H. Kuno, and H. Hosoda. 2005. Annual changes of community structure of ground insects at the isolated small stands in suburbs of Tokyo. Japanese Society of Revegetation Technology 30(3): 552-560.
  • Terayama M. 1977. Checklist of the known ants of Saitama Prefecture. Insects and nature 12(4): 26-27
  • Terayama M. 1983. Kagoshima-ken-hondo no ari. Kanagawa-chucho (Journal of the Kanagawa Entomologists Association): 13-24.
  • Terayama M. 1992. Structure of ant communities in East Asia. A. Regional differences and species richness. Bulletin of the Bio-geographical Society of Japan 47: 1-31.
  • Terayama M. 1994. Ants of Okushiri-to Island, Hokkaido. Ari 18: 28-29.
  • Terayama M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University. Liberal Arts 17:81-266.
  • Terayama M., Choi, B.M., Kim, C.H. 1992. A check list of ants from Korea, with taxonomic notes. Bulletin of the Toho Gakuen 7:19-54.
  • Terayama M., K. Ogata, and B.M. Choi. 1994. Distribution records of ants in 47 prefectures of Japan. Ari (report of the Myrmecologists Society of Japan) 18: 5-17.
  • Terayama M., S. Kubota, and K. Eguchi. 2014. Encyclopedia of Japanese ants. Asakura Shoten: Tokyo, 278 pp.
  • Terayama M., and K. Murata. 1987. Relation between ant communities and vegetations of Toshima island, the Izu Islands. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 42(9): 57-63.
  • Terayama M., and K. Murata. 1990. Effects of area and fragmentation of forests for nature conservation: Analysis by ant communities. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 45(2): 11-17.
  • Terayama M., and K. Murata. 2000. Ants on Saru-shima Island, Kanagawa Pref., Japan. Ari 24: 1-3.
  • Terayama M., and S. Kubota. 2002. Ants of Tokyo, Japan. ARI 26: 1-32.
  • Terayama M., and S. Yamane. 1984. Ants of Yaku-shima Island, the northern Ryukyus, with reference to their altitudinal distribution (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Cons. Rep. Yaku-shima Wildness Area, Kyushu, Japan, pp. 643-667. Nat. Cons. Bureau, Env. Agency, Japan.
  • Terayama, M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta; Hymenoptera). The Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University 17: 81-266.
  • Terayama. M. 1994. Ants of Okushiri-to Island, Hokkaido. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 18: 28-29
  • Terayama. M. 2004. Geological and ecological distribution of Japanese ants communities. (translated from Japanese) Reports of the Saitama Prefecture Animal Research Association. 48:24
  • Terayama. M. 2004. Geological and ecological distribution of Japanese ants communities. (translated from Japanese) Reports of the Saitama Prefecture Animal Research Association. 48:30
  • Terayama. M. 2004. Geological and ecological distribution of Japanese ants communities. (translated from Japanese) Reports of the Saitama Prefecture Animal Research Association. 48:32
  • Terayama. M. and Inoue. N. 1988. Ants collected by the members of the Soil Zoological Expedition to Taiwan. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 18: 25-28
  • Terayama. M. and Y. Watanabe. 1994. Ant fauna of the Zhongyang Mountains in Taiwan. Abstracts of papers presented at 33th Annual Meeting of the Myrmecological Society of Japan held on September 1st and 2nd, 1990, at the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 18: 32
  • Teruyama. M. 1988. Ant fauna of Saitama Prefecture, Japan. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 16: 4-13
  • Togashi I. 1994. Ant fauna of Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa prefecture. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 49(1): 47-50.
  • Touyama Y. 1996. Myrmecofaunal change under fire disturbance. Edaphologia 56: 25-30.
  • Touyama Y. 2001. Report of Argentine ant's invasion into Iwakuni City, Yamaguchi Prefecture. Ari 25: 1-3.
  • Tsuneoka Y. 2009. Colony collection of Polyergus samurai and Formica japonica in winter. Ari 32: 67-74.
  • Wang W. 2006. A taxonomic study of Formicidae ants from Hujiaping forest farm in Laifeng County. Journal of Hubei Institute for Nationalities (Natural Science Edition). 24(3): 298-300.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1906. The ants of Japan. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 22: 301-328.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1913. A revision of the ants of the genus Formica (Linné) Mayr. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 53: 379-565.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1921. Chinese ants. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 64: 529-547.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1928. Ants collected by Professor F. Silvestri in Japan and Korea. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria della Reale Scuola Superiore d'Agricoltura. Portici 22: 96-125.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1929. Ants collected by Professor F. Silvestri in Formosa, the Malay Peninsula and the Philippines. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria della Reale Scuola Superiore d'Agricoltura. Portici 24: 27-64.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1930. A list of the known Chinese ants. Peking Natural History Bulletin 5: 53-81.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1930. Formosan ants collected by Dr. R. Takahashi. Proceedings of the New England Zoological Club 11: 93-106.
  • Wu J. 1990. Taxonomic studies on the genus Formica of China (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Forest Research 3: 1-8.
  • Wu W. 2010. The taxonomic and fauna study on the Formicidae of Liaoning Province (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Master's Thesis Northeast Normal University, 75 pages.
  • Xia Yongjuan, and Zheng Zhemin. 1997. A survey of Formicidae form Xinjiang. Journal of Shaanxi Normal University 25(2): 64-66.
  • Yamane S., S. Ikudome, and M. Terayama. 1999. Identification guide to the Aculeata of the Nansei Islands, Japan. Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press, xii + 831 pp. pp, 138-317.
  • Yamane S., Y. Harada, and K. Eguchi. 2013. Classification and ecology of ants. Natural history of ants in Southern Kyushu. 200 pages
  • Yamane S.; Ikudome, S.; Terayama, M. 1999. Identification guide to the Aculeata of the Nansei Islands, Japan. Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press, xii + 831 pp. pp138-317.
  • Yamauchi K. 1968. Additional Notes on the Ecological Distribution of Ants in Sapporo and the Vicinity . Journal of the Faculty of Science Hokaido University, series VI, Zoology 16(3): 382-395.
  • Yoshimoto T., and S. Yamane. 1990. Food habits of some ant species inhabiting the Taisho lava of the Sakura-jima volcano, Japan (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Reports of the Faculty of Science Kagoshima University 23: 9-22.
  • Yoshimura M. 1998. Ants from Islands in Hokkaido, Northern Japan (No. 1, Risiri Island). Rishiri Studies 17:33-38.
  • Yoshimura M. 1999. Ants in the island of Hokkaido (Part 2, Part Rebun) Ants from Islands in Hokkaido, Northern Japan (No. 2, Rebun-Island). Rishiri Studies 18: 49-54.
  • Yoshimura M. 2000. Ants in the island of Hokkaido (Part 3, Part ???) Ants from Islands in Hokkaido, Northern Japan (No. 3, Teuri Island). Rishiri Studies 19: 27-35.
  • Yoshimura M., T. Hirata, A. Nakajima, and K. Onoyama. 2003. Ants found in scats and pellets taken from the nests of the Japanese Wryneck Jynx torquilla japonica. Ornithol. Sci. 2: 127-131.
  • Yoshitomi H., and S. Matsuno. 2012. List of species of Hymenoptera and Diptera in Matsuyama City, Ehime Prefecture, Shikoku, Japan. pp. 167-176. In: Committee for Surveys of Natural Environment of Matsuyama City (Chief Editor: Kazuo ISHIKAWA) (ed.) Checklist of the Wild Animals, Fungi, and Plants of Matsuyama City, 2012. Published by the Department of Environment, Matsuyama City, 404 pp.
  • Zhou S.-Y. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press, Guilin, China, Guilin, China. 255 pp.