Wheeler, W.M., 1920
|Aphomomyrmex hewitti, now Cladomyrma hewitti|
|Based on Ward et al. (2016) and Matos-Maravi et al. (2018).|
In southeast Asia, Cladomyrma live together with mealybugs (scale insects in family Pseudococcidae) in hollowed twigs of a wide range of ant-plants (myrmecophytes) (Moog et al. 2005). These ants protect their host plants against herbivores and prune (at least in part) encroaching vegetation. The ants gnaw open the host plant internodes and hollow them out by removing the pith (Moog et al. 2007). This association is described for at least 9 genera of vascular plants (Eguchi 2007, Maschwitz et al. 1991; Moog et al. 1998, 2005; Agosti et al. 1999).
Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps
Cladomyrma utilize live pithy stems as nest sites: Colony-founding queens gnaw entrance holes in suitable soft young internodes and excavate a chamber in which they rear their first brood in isolation. The initial founding chamber is later expanded by the emerging workers (Maschwitz et al., 1991; Moog et al., 1998). An individual plant sapling can host multiple incipient colonies in different internodes, but eventually a single monogynous colony monopolizes the entire host plant. New internodes will be colonized successively. Eventually the nest chambers run through stem, branches, and every twig. Size of mature colonies is variable, usually several thousand workers, but may reach 10,000 in a Saraca tree (8 m in height) and about 30,000 in Neonauclea gigantea (ca. 15 m) (Agosti et al. 1999). In mature colonies the often physogastric queen is usually found in the lower part of the host plant, and the brood is dispersed throughout the colony space.
Established colonies never lack sap-sucking scale insects inside the nest hollows, and the ants appear to be dependent on their honeydew excretions (Moog et al. 2005). Dissection of 338 founding chambers of eight Cladomyrma species showed that coccoid abundance strongly increases with founding age. The scale insects belong to a wide range of taxa, mainly Pseudococcidae. Coccidae are rare except in Cladomyrma maschwitzi.
Mature colonies of Cladomyrma display aggressive behavior if their host plant is disturbed. The workers protect young foliage against herbivores and prune young plant tips of encroaching vegetation (Moog et al., 1994; Moog et al., 1998). In addition, workers exhibit a conspicuous behavior on the plant surface, in which they regularly clean minute particles from young leaves — probably epiphylls or fungus spores.
Workers of some species show a water bailing behavior in which they can ingest water found inside their domatia and regurgitate it outside the nest (Moog et al. 1997).
Both workers and soldiers are described from various species (Agosti et al. 1999). Jaitrong et al. (2013) has illustrated the morphology of queens, soldiers and workers in Cladomyrma sirindhornae.
• Antennal segment count 8 • Antennal club gradual • Palp formula 6,4; 5,3 • Total dental count 4-9 • Spur formula 0, 0 • Eyes present • Scrobes absent • Caste dimorphic • Sting absent
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.
- CLADOMYRMA [Formicinae: Lasiini]
- Cladomyrma Wheeler, W.M. 1920: 53. Type-species: Aphomomyrmex hewitti, by original designation.
- Agosti, D. 1991. Revision of the oriental ant genus Cladomyrma, with an outline of the higher classification of the Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Syst. Entomol. 16: 293-310 PDF (page 293, 296, Revision of genus; Cladomyrma in Formicinae, Lasius genus group)
- Agosti, D.; Moog, J.; Maschwitz, U. 1999. Revision of the Oriental plant-ant genus Cladomyrma. Am. Mus. Novit. 3283: 1-24 PDF
- Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. (page 50, Cladomyrma in Formicinae, Brachymyrmecini)
- Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 4, 96, Cladomyrma in Formicinae, Lasiini)
- Chapman, J. W.; Capco, S. R. 1951. Check list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Asia. Monogr. Inst. Sci. Technol. Manila 1: 1-327 (page 208, Cladomyrma in Formicinae, Myrmelachistini)
- Dlussky, G. M.; Fedoseeva, E. B. 1988. Origin and early stages of evolution in ants. Pp. 70-144 in: Ponomarenko, A. G. (ed.) Cretaceous biocenotic crisis and insect evolution. Moskva: Nauka, 232 pp. (page 77, Cladomyrma incertae sedis in Formicinae)
- Donisthorpe, H. 1937a. Some new forms of Formicidae and a correction. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 10(19): 619-628 (page 620, Cladomyrma in Formicinae, Dimorphomyrmecini)
- Donisthorpe, H. 1943g. A list of the type-species of the genera and subgenera of the Formicidae. [part]. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 11(10): 617-688 (page 633, Cladomyrma in Formicinae, Dimorphomyrmecini)
- Eguchi, K. and Bui, T.V. 2007. Ecological notes on a plant ant, Cladomyrma scopulosa Eguchi & Bui (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Formicinae) associating with a tree species Saraca dives Pierre (Leguminosae). Asian Myrmecology. 1:51–58.
- Emery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183: 1-302 (page 45, Cladomyrma in Formicinae, Dimorphomyrmecini [subtribe Brachymyrmecini])
- Hölldobler, B.; Wilson, E. O. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, xii + 732 pp. (page 18, Cladomyrma in Formicinae, Myrmelachistini)
- Jaitrong, W., Laedprathom, K. & Yamane, S. 2013. A new species of the ant genus Cladomyrma Wheeler (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) from Thailand. Species Diversity 18, 15-22.
- Moog J, Drude T, Maschwitz U, Agosti D. 1997. Flood Control by Ants: Water-Bailing Behaviour in the Southeast Asian Plant-Ant Genus Cladomyrma Wheeler (Formicidae, Formicinae). Naturwissenschaften 84: 242-245.
- Moog J, Saw HG, Hashim R, Maschwitz U. 2005. The triple alliance: how a plant-ant, living in an ant-plant, acquires the third partner, a scale insect. Insectes Sociaux 52:169–176. DOI 10.1007/s00040-005-0791-3.
- Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1985b. A simplified conspectus of the Formicidae. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 111: 255-264 (page 258, Cladomyrma in Formicinae, Brachymyrmecini)
- Wheeler, W. M. 1920. The subfamilies of Formicidae, and other taxonomic notes. Psyche (Camb.) 27: 46-55 (page 53, Cladomyrma as genus)
- Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 697, Cladomyrma in Formicinae, Myrmelachistini)
- Wheeler, W. M. 1929a. The identity of the ant genera Gesomyrmex Mayr and Dimorphomyrmex Ernest André. Psyche (Camb.) 36: 1-12 (page 12, Cladomyrma in Formicinae, Brachymyrmecini)