Ponera coarctata

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Ponera coarctata
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Ponerinae
Tribe: Ponerini
Genus: Ponera
Species: P. coarctata
Binomial name
Ponera coarctata
(Latreille, 1802)

Ponera coarctata casent0008634 profile 1.jpg

Ponera coarctata casent0008634 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels


An inconspicuous slow moving ant, mainly carnivorous, living in small nests with two or three queens and typically less than 60 workers. It is a common species in mainland Greece, in islands noted only from Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. It prefers shadow forest habitats, especially oak forests. In Achaia, its nests were located under stones in a stream valley with plane trees, and in a high-growing oak forest (Borowiec & Salata, 2021).

At a Glance • Tandem running  

Photo Gallery

  • Ponera coarctata workers tandem running. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Ponera coarctata, foraging workers.


Light to dark brown with sparse pubescence but numerous body hairs especially on the gaster. Head more closely punctured than alitrunk; mandibles with four strong teeth towards apex and smaller indistinct denticulae posteriorly. Eyes are minute and often indistinct. Ocelli absent. Length: 3.0-3.5 mm (Collingwood 1979).

The diagnostic features separating coarctata and Ponera pennsylvanica involve sculpturation in the worker and queen castes, the form of the petiolar node in queens, and differences in the male pygidial structure (Taylor 1967).

Keys including this Species


P. coarctata appears to have its center of distribution in the northern Mediterranean part of Europe. The records from North Africa and the Middle East are too sparse to allow a conclusion as to the abundance of the species there, or as to whether it is distributed clear across North Africa. The records from Britain, Germany, and the U. S. S. R., indicate a probable distributional limit at a latitude of about 52°N (note that the northern English records are dubious). P. coarctata has not been recorded from Scandinavia , although several active myrmecologists have resided there. The lack of records from some other areas (e. g., Turkey) is no doubt due to deficient collections (Taylor 1967).

Throughout Central and South Europe from Portugal to the Caucasus and from North Africa to the Netherlands (Collingwood 1979).

Borowiec (2014) suggests some records recorded as this species may actually represent Ponera testacea.

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 54° to 32.249974°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Balearic Islands, Belgium, Bulgaria, Channel Islands, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Georgia, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Iberian Peninsula, Israel, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Luxembourg (type locality), Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, North Macedonia, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Tunisia, Türkiye, Ukraine, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Taylor 1967 Ponera fig 21.jpg

Taylor stated, in reference to this map in his 1967 revision: "Material studied here is represented by closed circles on the map and unverified published records by open ones.


Taylor (1967) - Little detailed published information is available concerning this subject apart from Gosswald's (1932) review of his collections from the vicinity of Wiirzburg, Germany. He gives records for 20 nests, one of which was taken in sand, in the foundations of a house; with 19 in limestone (Haupmuschelkalk) soils. More colonies (15) were taken on upper Haupmuschelkalk soils than on those of the middle (3) or upper (1) parts of the formation; no possible explanation for this apparent correlation was suggested. Gosswald noted preference by coarctata for dry stony soils, but observed no clear correlation between vegetation type and distribution of the ant. Specimens were collected in woods, woods margins, a domestic garden and in dry grassy wasteland; the species was found most commonly in the latter habitat. Eighteen nests were located under stones, and two were in the soil without a covering object; no general structural regularity of the nests was noted, but it was suggested that the galleries must penetrate deeply into the soil. The largest colony contained 30 workers.

Gosswald gave September as the flight season in Germany, and noted that pupal cocoons containing alate females were found in nests during August. In Britain, Donisthorpe (1927) gives records of free flying alates taken from late August (28th) to late September. I have seen a single male from Charing, Kent, collected on 24.VIII.1904; otherwise all alate specimens agree with Donisthorpe's data. Four Italian and Yugoslavian males in the Finzi collection (MCZ) bear the month only - August in all cases.

Reproductive Female Size Variation

Liebig et al. (1997) - Queens of Ponera coarctata show a pronounced variation in size as measured by ommatidia number and Weber’s alitrunk length. Isometric size variation and the normal distribution of size categories indicate that, despite these differences, only one queen morph exists. Queen size varies less within colonies than between colonies, and thus appears to be colony specific. Ovary length apparently varies with queen size. Similar size variations as in queens also occured in males, but not in workers.

Regional Notes

Fennoscandia, Denmark and the British Isles

Collingwood (1979) - This is an inconspicuous species of slow movement, mainly carnivorous, living in small nests with two or three queens and 12 to 35 workers. Nests are found under stones or moss in broken stony ground, banks or crumbling cliffs and among flints in open woodland. Alates occur during August and September and have been caught by sweeping hedgerows in late summer.


Liebig et al. (1997) - Colonies of Ponera coarctata were collected in July and August 1992, and between April and September 1993 in the vicinity of Wtirzburg, Bavaria, Germany. Colonies rarely exceeded 60 workers. The largest was collected at the end of July 1992, and contained two queens, 135 workers, 238 cocoons, and 23 larvae. Colonies collected in the fall contained alate queens and males or pupae of sexuals.


Borowiec and Salata (2022) - Ponera coarctata is an ubiquistic forest species, noted from luminous pine forests, mountain deciduous and coniferous forests, stream valleys with plane forests, occasionally from open habitats like mountain pastures but from altitude above 900 m. Nesting always under stones. Collecting sites come from an altitude 88-1400 m.

Association with Other Organisms

Explore-icon.png Explore: Show all Associate data or Search these data. See also a list of all data tables or learn how data is managed.

This species is a host for the diapriid wasp Synacra brevipennis (a parasite) (Nixon, 1957).

Flight Period

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Source: antkeeping.info.



Images from AntWeb

Ponera coarctata casent0172740 head 1.jpgPonera coarctata casent0172740 profile 1.jpgPonera coarctata casent0172740 dorsal 1.jpgPonera coarctata casent0172740 label 1.jpg
Worker. Specimen code casent0172740. Photographer April Nobile, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by CAS, San Francisco, CA, USA.






Ponera cf. sinensis (China)

Ponera exotica

Ponera sp. (Malaysia)

Ponera leae

Ponera clavicornis

Ponera (Seychelles)

Ponera incerta

Ponera petila

Ponera swezeyi

Ponera coarctata

Ponera pennsylvanica

Relationships among selected species of Ponera based on Branstetter & Longino (2019). The focus of this study was the species Ponera exotica and Ponera pennsylvanica.


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • coarctata. Formica coarctata Latreille, 1802b: 65, pl. 3, fig. 1 (w.q.) LUXEMBOURG. Foerster, 1850a: 46 (m.). Combination in Ponera: Latreille, 1804: 178. Senior synonym of contracta: Roger, 1863b: 16. Senior synonym of atlantis, lucida and material of the unavailable names colchica, taurica referred here: Taylor, 1967a: 21. See also: Emery, 1909c: 368; Donisthorpe, 1915d: 67; Stitz, 1939: 58, Csösz & Seifert, 2003: 207.
  • contracta. Formica contracta Latreille, 1802c: 195, pl. 7, fig. 40 (w.q.) LUXEMBOURG. [Unnecessary replacement name for coarctata Latreille, 1802b: 65.] Junior synonym of coarctata: Roger, 1863b: 16.
  • lucida. Ponera coarctata var. lucida Emery, 1898c: 130 (w.) KAZAKHSTAN. [Misspelled as lucidula by Emery, 1909c: 370.] Junior synonym of coarctata: Taylor, 1967a: 21.
  • atlantis. Ponera coarctata var. atlantis Santschi, 1921e: 166, fig. 2 (w.) TUNISIA. Junior synonym of coarctata: Taylor, 1967a: 21.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Taylor (1967) - There is little appreciable geographic variation in P. coarctata workers, except that those from the Mediterranean parts of its range tend to average slightly smaller than those from more northern locales, and to have somewhat lighter coloration. The smaller size specimens in each sample show various allometric differences from larger samples. Similar intranidal variation is seen in Ponera pennsylvanica, discussed below. Head length and scape length are negatively allometric relative to head width (k = ca 1.4-1.45), petiolar node width is positively allometric (k = ca 0.7), while pronotum width and petiole height are approximately isometric. Thus small specimens tend to yield higher values for scape index and petiolar node index, and lower values for cephalic index than do large ones. In addition petiolar node length is negatively allometric relative to petiole height, so that small workers tend to have bulkier petiolar nodes than large ones; these appear thicker in side view and the dorsal faces more closely approximate a half-circle in extent than do those of large specimens. Smaller specimens tend to be slightly lighter in color, and less hirsute than large ones, and to have the sculpturation a little less intense. There is sufficient variation in color within single samples to suggest that the callow period may be prolonged in this species.

The apparent tendency for color to be less intense in Mediterranean samples, may be correlated with the generally drier conditions there than in the north. The Australian Ponera leae Forel is known to produce small, relatively light colored, eco-types in the drier habitats in which it is found around Sydney. This could well be the case in coarctata, for certain of the Mediterranean samples are of normal dark coloration, and may be from more moist habitats than those usually occupied in this area.



Taylor 1967 figs. 15-20

Taylor (1967) - The following notes are based on several hundred specimens from most parts of the species range (see "Figure 21" map in the distribution section).

No significant geographical variation is detectable in the standard dimensions and indices which are HL 0.67-0.77 mm; HW 0.50-0.60 mm; SL 0.47-0.57 mm; CI 77-82 ; SI 87-98; PW 0.39-0.46 mm; PNL 0.22-0.25 mm; PH 0.38-0.48 mm; DPW 0.29-0.36 mm; PNI 67-82. General form as shown in figs. 15-17. Mandibles triangular, with 3 large teeth occupying apical 1/3 of masticatory border, followed by a regular series of 9-14 minute denticles. Clypeus slightly produced anteriorly, with a rather distinct raised longitudinal carina - probably a vestige of the median tooth, seen in some Indo-Australian species. Scapes usually with their apices approximately contiguous with median occipital border, but they may fail to attain it by up to 1/3 their maximum thickness. Funiculus lacking a segmentally differentiated club, antennomeres increasing regularly in length and breadth towards apex which is moderately incrassate; apical segment a little longer than 2 preceding together. Palpal formula (several specimens dissected); Maxillary 2 : Labial 2. Eyes small, with 1 - 5 very indistinct minute facets, situated about 0.85 X the distance from lateral occipital border to midpoint of anterior genal border. Mesometanotal suture clearly incised on mesosomal dorsum, lateral mesonotal suture less distinct. A small lobate projection present on posterodorsal corner of the mesepisternum, usually separated from it by a fine suture-like trace. Posterolateral propodeal angles not raised, forming blunt angles of about 90" when viewed from above. Node in profile as in fig. 16, subpetiolar fenestra small, circular, posterodorsal teeth small but distinct. Dorsal surface of node, viewed from above, forming distinctly less to slightly more than a half-circle.

Mandibles smooth and shining, with a few scattered punctures, about 0.005 mm in diameter, separated by intervals equal to about 1 /2 their average diameter. Scapes moderately shining, with a cover of fine punctures, spaced at about their average diameter. Pronotum moderately shining, with a scattering of fine point-punctures, spaced at 2-3 X their average diameter. Mesonotum, dorsum of propodeum and sides of mesosoma less densely punctate, and quite strongly shining. Virtually no trace of longitudinal striation on lower mesepisternum and metepisternal area. Declivitous face of propodeum smooth and shining. Node and gaster feebly punctate, moderately shining.

Csosz and Seifert 2003 figs. 4-11

Short erect to sub-erect pilosity and fine pubescence everywhere abundant - the pilosity of the clypeus, frontal lobes, dorsa of propodeum and node, and apex of gaster relatively long. Color ranging from light golden brown to a dark reddish mahogany hue. Mandibles, clypeus, antennae, coxae, and tip of gaster lighter - dull yellowish brown; remaining parts of legs yellowish.

Csosz and Seifert (2003) - Average body length 3.0–3.5 mm. Colour darker; brown to dark brown, somewhat brownish black. Mandibles triangular, with 3 apical teeth at the tip of the masticatory border, followed by a regular series of 9-14 minute denticles. Clypeus slightly produced anteriorly, with a rather distinctly raised longitudinal carina. Whole body covered with thick decumbent hairs. Head strongly punctured, the frontal furrow generally reaches the middle part of head. Eyes small, with 1–5 minute facetes. Scape with subdecumbent and suberect hairs. Tibiae with decumbent, or subdecumbent hairs. Alitrunk relatively higher than in testacea. Mesonotal furrow between the mesonotum and anepisternum well developed. Petiole higher and more scale-like than in testacea, the anterior and posterior profiles running subparallel. The subpetiolar tooth-like process small but distinct, frequently not forming a well-developed triangular projection down- and backward; subpetiolar fenestra small. First gaster tergite with dense hairs. Average distance of the fine cuticular points on the first gaster tergite 19.4 μm [17.2–21.8 μm]. Overall pigmentation in mature specimens significantly darker than in testacea. Whole nest populations with all individuals light brown are unknown..


Taylor 1967 figs. 1-8

Taylor (1967) - (fig 4) 11 queens from Italy, France and England, have the following measurements: HL 0.34-0.38 mm; HW 0.28-0.32 mm; SL 0.23-0.29 mm; CI 85-88; SI 84-86; PW 0.23-0.27 mm; PNL 0.11-0.13 mm; PH 0.21-0.24 mm; DPW 0.16-0.20 mm; PNI 63-66; maximum diameter of compound eye 0.07-0.10 mm; ocular index 24-28. Palpal formula (3 specimens dissected): Maxillary 2: Labial 2, as in the worker. General characters much as in P. pennsylvanica, but smaller in size, as indicated in above dimensions. Note that there is no overlap in the ranges of the 2 species for PW, PH, DPW, WL, and PNI. Females of P. coarctata are readily distinguished from those of Ponera pennsylvanica on the basis of these characters, and in addition the sculpturation is much less intense. Mandibles, clypeus, scapes, and front of head as in worker, the latter with punctures slightly larger. Mesosomal dorsum moderately shining, with a scattering of small punctures about 0.005 mm in diameter, separated by distances equivalent to 1-2 X their maximum diameter. These punctures more distinct on scutellum than elsewhere. Sides of mesosoma slightly less heavily punctured than dorsum, and more strongly shining; effaced traces of longitudinal striation present on metepisternal areas. Node and gaster smooth and strongly shining, virtually lacking sculpturation apart from the scattered minute pilosity-bearing punctures. Color generally as in workers, eyes black, wing veins yellowish.

Csosz and Seifert (2003) - Similar to the worker. Average body length over 3.5 mm. Colour darker, brown to dark brown somewhat black. Whole body with thick decumbent hairs. Scape with subdecumbent and suberect hairs. Tibiae with decumbent hairs. Metanotal furrow between the katepisternum and anepisternum well-developed and always visible. Petiole high and scale-like in profile. The subpetiolar tooth-like process frequently not forming a well-developed caudoventral triangular projection. First gaster tergite with dense hairs, similar to the worker.

Morphometric measurements of 19 gynes (SEIFERT): CS 714±27 [662,752], FoDG 19.57±0.77 [18.3,20.8], PEL/NOH 1.100±0.047 [1.021,1.196], PiMe 9.71±1.04 [8.0,12.0], CL/CW 1.214±0.019 [1.179,1.248], SL/CS 0.817±0.008 [0.802,0.830], ML/CS 1.661±0.030 [1.589,1.706], MW/CS 0.767±0.019 [0.734,0.798], PEW/CS 0.525±0.022 [0.478,0.559], PEL/CS 0.431±0.013 [0.410,0.457], NOH/CS 0.392±0.017 [0.355,0.426].

Morphometric measurements of 11 gynes (CSŐSZ): CL 769±17 [745,790], CW 635±12 [620,650], CS 702±14 [685,720], FR/CS 0.117±0.006 [0.1,0.125], FL/CS 0.245±0.01 [0.226,0.260], SL/CS 793±0.016 [0.825,0.778], ML/CS 1.588±0.037 [1.533,1.632], MH/CS 0.80±0.038 [0.758,0.858], PEH/CS 0.724±0.018 [0.702,0.759], PH/CS 0.397±0.016 [0.379,0.421], PL/CS 0.353±0.016 [0.323,0.365], PEW/CS 0.534±0.016 [0.518,0.557], CL/CW 1,210±0.0218 [1.188,1.242], FL/FR 2.075±0.114 [1.938,2.205], PH/PL 1.143±0.042 [1.10,1.196], ML/MH 1.972±0.051 [1.902,2.018], CL/SL 1.383±0.254 [1.355,1.411].


Taylor (1967) - 6 specimens, from various Italian, French, and English localities, are identical in general structure. They have the following dimensions; HL 0.54-0.58 mm; HW (across eyes) 0.61-0.64 mm; CI 112-116; WL 1.06-1.18 mm; PNL 0.19-0.22 mm; PH 0.34-0.39 mm; DPW 0.25-0.28 mm; maximum diameter of eye 0.27-0.31 mm; ocular index 44-47. Palpal formula (4 specimens dissected); Maxillary 5: Labial 3. Wing venation as in queen. General structure very similar to P. pennsylvanica (figs. 9-14). The few points of difference apart from the smaller size include the following: Genitalia in general similar, but the pygidial spine distinctly weaker; sculpturation lighter, pennsylvanica has a shallow, and somewhat obscure puncturation on most parts of the head and mesosoma, which dulls the reflections of these parts, while coarctata has the same surfaces smooth and highly polished. The color tends to be a little darker than in pennsyivanica.

Csosz and Seifert (2003) - Average body length over 3.00 mm. Colour always black. Whole body with numerous thick decumbent hairs. Head with dense long hairs. Eyes with long hairs among the facetes. Alitrunk more robust in profile view than in its sibling species.

Immature Forms

Taylor (1967) - I have seen no larvae of P. coarctata, but it may be dependably assumed that they have 4 pairs of glutinous "doorknob" tubercles. These have been referred to in the literature on a number of occasions (e. g., Donisthorpe [1915], Escherich [1917, p. 96-97]) and a figure was published by Karawajew (1934). The pupae of all castes are enclosed in cocoons.


Type Material

Taylor (1967) - Ponera coarctata var. atlantis Santschi, 1 92 1 , Boll. Soc. Espan. Hist. Nat. 21 : 1 66, fig. 2, worker. Original localities : Algeria and Tunisia. (Syntypes examined Santschi coll., Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel)


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Abril S., C. Gómez. 2012. Lista actualizada de las especies de hormigas de Menorca (Islas Baleares, España) y primera cita de Monomorium andrei Saunders, 1890 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) de la isla Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 50: 403-407.
  • Acosta, F. J., M. D. Martínez Ibáñez, and M. A. Morales. "Contribución al conocimiento de la mirmecofauna del encinar peninsular. I." Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 6 (2) (1983): 379-391.
  • Agosti, D. and C.A. Collingwood. 1987. A provisional list of the Balkan ants (Hym. Formicidae) and a key to the worker caste. I. Synonymic list. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 60: 51-62
  • AntArea. Accessed on February 5th 2014 at http://antarea.fr/fourmi/
  • Antarea (at www.antarea.fr on June 11th 2017)
  • Antonova V., and L. Penev. 2008. Classification of assemblages of ants in the green areas in Sofia City. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 60(2): 103-110.
  • Astruc C., J. F. Julien, C. Errard, and A. Lenoir. 2004. Phylogeny of ants based on morphology and DNA sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 31: 880-893.
  • Azuma M. 1953. On the myrmecological fauna of Mt. Rokko, Hyogo Prefecture. Warera 2:1-7.
  • Baroni Urbani C. 1974. Studi sulla mirmecofauna d'Italia. XII. Le Isole Pontine. Fragm. Entomol. 9: 225-252.
  • Baroni Urbani C., and C. A. Collingwood. 1976. A Numerical Analysis of the Distribution of British Formicidae (Hymenoptera, Aculeata). Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Basel 85: 51-91.
  • Baroni Urbani C., and C. A. Collingwood. 1977. The zoogeography of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in Northern Europe. Acta Zoologica Fennica 152: 1-34.
  • Baroni Urbani, C. "Studi sulla mirmecofauna d'Italia. II. Formiche di Sicilia." Atti dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali in Catania (6) 16 (1964): 25-66.
  • Barrett K. E. 1967. Ants in South Brittany. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation 79:112-116.
  • Barrett K. E. J. 1968b. The distribution of ants in central southern England. Transactions of the Society for British Entomology 17: 235-250.
  • Baugnee J. Y. 2003. Camponotus piceus (Leach, 1825), fourmi nouvelle pour la faune belge decouverte dans le parc naturel Viroin-Hermeton (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin S. R. B. E./K. B. V. E. 139: 219-225.
  • Behr D., S. Lippke, and K. Colln. 1996. Zur kenntnis der ameisen von Koln (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Decheniana-Beihefte (Bonn) 35: 215-232.
  • Behr D., and K. Colln. 1993. Zur ameisenfauna (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) von Gonnersdorf (Kr. Daun). Dendrocopos 20: 148-160.
  • Bernadou A., V. Fourcassié, and X. Espadaler. 2013. A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Andorra. Zookeys 277: 13-23.
  • Bernard F. 1967. Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp.
  • Bernard F. 1970. Les fourmis de la forêt de Mâmora (Maroc). Revue d'Écologie et de Biologie du Sol 6:n483-513.
  • Bernard, F. "Notes sur les fourmis de France. II. Peuplement des montagnes méridionales." Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 115 (1950): 1-36.
  • Bernard, F. "Remarques sur le peuplement des Baléares en fourmis." Bulletin de la Société d' Histoire naturelle de l' Afrique du Nord 47 (1956): 254-266.
  • Bezdecka P. 1996. The ants of Slovakia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomofauna carpathica 8: 108-114.
  • Bigot L. 1959. Complement a l'inventaire de la faune entomologique de la Camargue 93eme note). La Terre et la Vie 106 : 149-157.
  • Boer P. 2019. Species list of the Netherlands. Accessed on January 22 2019 at http://www.nlmieren.nl/websitepages/specieslist.html
  • Boer P., W. Dekoninck, A. J. Van Loon, and F. Vankerkhoven. 2003. Lijst van mieren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) van Belgie en Nederland, hun Nederlandse namen en hun voorkomen. Entomologische Berichten (Amsterdam) 63: 54-58.
  • Boer P., W. Dekoninck, A. J. van Loon, and F. Vankerkhoven. 2003. List of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Belgium and The Netherlands, their status and Dutch vernacular names. Entomologische Berichten 63 (3): 54-58.
  • Bonaric J. C. 1971. Contribution a l'etude systematique et ecologique des formicides du Bas-Languedoc. PhD thesis Universite des sciences et techniques du Languedoc, 175 pages.
  • Bonaric J. C. 1971. Étude systématique et écologique des fourmis de l’Hérault. Ann. Soc. Hortic. Hist. Nat. Hérault 111: 81-87.
  • Borowiec L. 2014. Catalogue of ants of Europe, the Mediterranean Basin and adjacent regions (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus (Wroclaw) 25(1-2): 1-340.
  • Borowiec L., and S. Salata. 2012. Ants of Greece - Checklist, comments and new faunistic data (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus 23(4): 461-563.
  • Borowiec L., and S. Salata. 2013. Ants of Greece – additions and corrections (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus (Wroclaw) 24(3-4): 335-401.
  • Borowiec L., and S. Salata. 2017. Ants of the Peloponnese, Greece (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Polish Journal of Entomology 86: 193-236.
  • Borowiec L., and S. Salata. 2018. Notes on ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Samos Island, Greece. Annals of the Upper Silesian Museum in Bytom Entomology 27: 1-13.
  • Borowiec M. L., and L. Borowiec. 2013. New data on the occurrence of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Lower Silesia and other regions of Poland. Wiadomo?ci Entomologiczne 32: 49-57.
  • Boven J. K. A. 1947. Liste de détermination des principales espèces de fourmis belges (Hymenoptera Formicidae). Bulletin et Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 83: 163-190.
  • Bracko G. 2007. Checklist of the ants of Slovenia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Natura Sloveniae 9: 15-24
  • Bracko G., K. Kiran, C. Karaman, S. Salata, and L. Borowiec. 2016. Survey of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Greek Thrace. Biodiversity Data Journal 4: e7945. doi: 10.3897/BDJ.4.e7945
  • Bracko, G. 2006. Review of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera:Formicidae) of Croatia. Acta Entomologica Slovenica 14(2): 131-156.
  • Bracko, G. "Review of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Croatia." Acta Entomologica Slovenica Vol 14 st (2006): 131-156.
  • Braschler, B. and B. Baur. 2005. Experimental Small-Scale Grassland Fragmentation Alters Competitive Interactions among Ant Species. Oecologia 143(2):291-300
  • Buren W. F. 1941. A preliminary list of Iowa ants. Iowa State College Journal of Science 15: 111-117
  • Buschinger A. 1975. Die ameisenfauna des Bausenberges, der nordostlichen Eifel und Voreifel (Hym., Formicidae) mit einer quantitativen Auswertung von Fallenfangen. Beitrage Landespflege Rhid-Pfalz Beiheft 4: 251-273.
  • Cagniant, H. 1968. Liste preliminaire de fourmis forestieres d'Algerie. Resultats obtenus de 1963 a 1964. Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse 104: 138-147
  • Cagniant, H. 2006. Liste actualisée des fourmis du Maroc. Myrmecologische Nachrichten 8: 193-200.
  • Cagniant, H. "Liste actualisee des fourmis du Maroc (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Myrmecologische Nachrichten 8 (2006): 193-200.
  • Cagniant, H. "Note sur les peuplements de fourmis en forêt d'Algérie." Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse 108 (1973): 386-390.
  • Cagniant, H. "Étude de quelques fourmis marocaines. Statistique provisoire des Formicidae du Maroc." Bulletin de la Société d' Histoire naturelle de l' Afrique du Nord 53 (1964): 83-118.
  • Cagniant, H. Les peuplements de fourmis des forêts algériennes: écologie, biocénotique, essai biologique. Universite de Toulouse, 1973.
  • Callot H., and A. Astric. 2011. Liste de référence des Fourmis d'Alsace. 7 p. Version mise à jour au 23/03/2013. http://sites.estvideo.net/sae/ consultation du 27 January 2014.
  • Casevitz-Weulersse J. 1990. Etude Systematique de la Myrmecofaune Corse (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), deuxieme partie. Bull. Mus. Natn. Hist. Nat. Paris. 4eme serie 12, section A(2): 415-442.
  • Casevitz-Weulersse J. 1992. La myrmecofaune de la reserve naturelle de Scandola, inventaire spécifique (1984/85-1991). Trav. Sci. Parc nat. Res. Nat. Corse, Fr, 36: 85-108.
  • Casevitz-Weulersse J., and C. Galkowski. 2009. Liste actualisee des Fourmis de France (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 114: 475-510.
  • Casevitz-Weulersse J., and M. Prost. 1991. Fourmis de la Côte-d'Or présentes dans les collections du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Dijon. Bulletin Scientifique de Bourgogne 44: 53-72.
  • Casevitz-Weulersse, J. "Contribution a la connaisance des fourmis de la Corse (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." These de Doctorat Museum Nat (1989): 379pp.
  • Ceballos, G. "Las tribus de los himenópteros de España. [FALTA ALGUNA PÁGINA]." Instituto Español de Entomología Madrid (1943): pp. 311-420.
  • Colindre L. 2015. Les fourmis en Picardie: bilan 2014 (Hymenoptera/ Formicidae). Entomologiste Picard 26, 15 pages.
  • Colindre L. 2017. Richess et utilite du cortege de fourmis en foret d'Ermenonville, Oise, Region Hauts-de-France. Association des Entomologistes de Picardie. 19 pages.
  • Collingwood C. A. 1956. Ant hunting in France. Entomologist 89: 106-108.
  • Collingwood C. A. 1971. A synopsis of the Formicidae of north Europe. Entomologist 104: 150-176
  • Collingwood C., and A. Prince. 1998. A guide to ants of continental Portugal (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomologia. Suplemento 5: 1-49.
  • Collingwood, C. A. 1958b. A key to the species of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) found in Britain. Trans. Soc. Br. Entomol. 13: 69-96
  • Collingwood, C. A. 1964. The Identification of British Ants (Hym. Formicidae). Transactions of the Society for British Entomology. 16:93-121.
  • Collingwood, C. A., and I. H. H. Yarrow. "A survey of Iberian Formicidae." EOS (Revista española de entomología) 44 (1969): 53-101.
  • Collingwood, C. A. "A provisional list of Iberian Formicidae with a key to the worker caste." EOS (Revista española de entomología) Nº LVII (1978): 65-95.
  • Collingwood, C. A. "The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark." Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8 (1979): 1-174.
  • Comín del Río, P., and Andrés de Haro. "Datos iniciales para un estudio ecológico de las hormigas de Menorca." Bolletí de la Societat d´Historia Natural de les Balears 24 (1980): 23-48.
  • Comín del Río, P. "Los Formícidos de Menorca. Contribución al estudio taxonómico, geográfico y biológico." Tesina de licenciatura Universida (1977): 135 pp.
  • Comín del Río, P. Estudio de los formícidos de Baleares: Contribución al estudio taxonómico, geográfìco y biológico. Palma de Mallorca: Universidad de las Islas Baleares, 1988.
  • Consani M., and P. Zangheri. 1952. Fauna di Romagna. Imenotteri - Formicidi. Memorie della Societa Entomologica Italiana 31: 38-48.
  • Csosz S., B. Marko, K. Kiss, A. Tartally, and L. Galle. 2002. The ant fauna of the Ferto-Hansag National Park (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). In: Mahunka, S. (Ed.): The fauna of the Fert?-Hanság National Park. Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, pp. 617-629.
  • Csösz, S., and B. Seifert. "Ponera testacea Emery, 1895 stat. n.- A sister especies of coarctata (Latreille, 1802) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 49 (3) (2003): 201-214.
  • Csősz S., B. Markó, and L. Gallé. 2011. The myrmecofauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Hungary: an updated checklist. North-Western Journal of Zoology 7: 55-62.
  • Czechowski W., A. Radchenko, W. Czechowska and K. Vepsäläinen. 2012. The ants of Poland with reference to the myrmecofauna of Europe. Fauna Poloniae 4. Warsaw: Natura Optima Dux Foundation, 1-496 pp
  • De Stefani T. 1889. Miscellanea imenotterologica sicula. Nat. Sicil. 8: 140-145.
  • Dekoninck W., H. De Koninck, J. Y. Baugnee, and J. P. Maelfait. 2007. Ant biodiversity conservation in Belgian calcareous grasslands: active management is vital. Belg. J. Zool. 137 (2): 137-146.
  • Della Santa E. 1994. Guide pour l'identification des principales espèces de fourmis de Suisse. Miscellanea Faunistica Helvetiae 3: 1-124.
  • Dennis C. A. 1938. The distribution of ant species in Tennessee with reference to ecological factors. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 31: 267-308.
  • Dewes E. 2005. Ameisenerfassung im „Waldschutzgebiet Steinbachtal/Netzbachtal“. Abh. Delattinia 31: 89-118.
  • Dlussky G. M., O. S. Soyunov, and S. I. Zabelin. 1990. Ants of Turkmenistan. Ashkabad: Ylym Press, 273 pp.
  • Du Merle P. 1978. Les peuplements de fourmis et les peuplements d'acridiens du Mont Ventoux II. - Les peuplements de fourmis. Terre Vie 32(1): 161-218.
  • Dubovikoff D. A., and Z. M. Yusupov. 2018. Family Formicidae - Ants. In Belokobylskij S. A. and A. S. Lelej: Annotated catalogue of the Hymenoptera of Russia. Proceedingss of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences 6: 197-210.
  • Eidmann, H. "Die Ameisenfauna der Balearen." Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere 6 (1926): 694-742.
  • Eidmann, H. "Zur Kenntnis der Insektekfauna der Balearischen Inseln." Entomologische Mitteilungen 16 (1927): 24-37.
  • Else G., B. Bolton, and G. Broad. 2016. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - aculeates (Apoidea, Chrysidoidea and Vespoidea). Biodiversity Data Journal 4: e8050. doi: 10.3897/BDJ.4.e8050
  • Emery C. 1911. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118: 1-125.
  • Emery C. 1914. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Bearbeitung von O. Leonhard's Sammlungen. 5. Südeuropäische Ameisen (Hym.). Entomologische Mitteilungen. Berlin-Dahlem 3: 156-159.
  • Emery C. 1916. Fauna entomologica italiana. I. Hymenoptera.-Formicidae. Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 47: 79-275.
  • Emery, C. "Beiträge zur Kenntniss der palaearktischen Ameisen." Öfversigt af Finska Vetenskaps-Societetens Förhandlingar (Helsinki) 20 (1898): 124-151.
  • Emery, C. "Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte seconda. Formiche dell'Europa e delle regioni limitrofe in Africa e in Asia." Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 12 (1878): 43-59.
  • Emery, C. "Exploration scientifique de la Tunisie. Zoologie. - Hyménoptères. Révision critique des fourmis de la Tunisie." Explor. Scient. De la Tunisie Zoll. Hym. (Folleto) Paris. Imp (1891): iii + 21 pp.
  • Emery, C. "Sopra alcune formiche della fauna mediterranea." Memorie della Reale Accademia delle Scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna (5)5 (1895): 59-75 [pagination of separate: 291-307].
  • Espadaler, X., J. Pujade-Villar, and A. Bernadou. "Contribució al coneixement de la taxonomia i la fenologia de les formigues (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) d'Andorra." Butlletí de l' Institució Catalana d'Història Natural 74 (2006): 81-90.
  • Fernández-Haeger, J., and A. Rodríguez-González. "Les peuplements de fourmis dans la Sierra Morena centrale (Espagne). Rapports avec l'exposition et la vegetation." Insectes Sociaux 29 (1982): 358-368.
  • Field Museum Collection, Chicago, Illinois (C. Moreau)
  • Finzi, B. "Formiche dell'isola d'Elba e Monte Argentario." Bollettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 56 (1924): 12-15.
  • Forel A. 1890. Fourmis de Tunisie et de l'Algérie orientale. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 34: lxi-lxxvi.
  • Forel, A. "Ameisen aus den Sporaden, den Cykladen und Griechenland, gesammelt 1887 von Herrn von Oertzen." Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 32 (1889): 255-265.
  • Forel, A. "Fourmis de Tunisie et de l'Algerie orientale recoltees et decrites par Auguste Forel." Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 34 (1890): lxi-lxxvi.
  • Forel, A. "Nouvelles fourmis de Grèce récoltées par M. E. von Oertzen." Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 30 (1886): clix-clxviii.
  • Forel, A. "Südpalaearctische Ameisen." Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gessellschaft 9 (1895): 227-234.
  • Formidabel Database
  • Fowles, A.P. 1996. A provisional checklist of the invertebrates recorded from Wales. 2. Aculeate wasps, bees and ants (Hymenoptera: Aculeata). Countryside Council for Wales
  • Francois J. 1958. Contribution a l'etude ecologique des Formicides (Insectes, Hymenopteres) de la region Dijonnaise. Travaux du laboratoire de Zoologie et de la Station Aquicole Grimaldi de la Faculte des Sciences de Dijon 25, 39 pages.
  • GRETIA. 2017. Bilan annuel de l'enquete sur la repartition des fourmis armoricaines. 23 pages.
  • Gadeau de Kerville H. 1922. Materiaux pour la Faune des Hymenopteres de la Normandie. Bull. Soc. Amis Sc. Nat. Rouen 1916-1921, 1922: 217-225.
  • Galle L. 1972. Study of ant-populations in various grassland ecosystems. Acta Biologica Szeged 18(1-4): 159-164.
  • Galle L. 1981. The Formicoid fauna of the Hortobagy. Pp. 307-311 in: Mahunka, S. (ed.) 1981. The fauna of the Hortobágy National Park. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 415 pp.
  • Galle L. 1993. Data to the ant fauna of the Bukk (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Natural history of the national parks of Hungary 7: 445-448.
  • Gallé L., B. Markó, K. Kiss, E. Kovács, H. Dürgő, K. Kőváry, and S. Csősz. 2005. Ant fauna of Tisza river basin (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). — In: Gallé, L. (szerk.): Vegetation and Fauna of Tisza River Basin I. Tiscia Monograph Series 7; Szeged, pp. 149-197.
  • García F., X. Espadaler, P. Echave, and R. Vila. 2011. Hormigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) de los acantilados de l'Avenc de Tavertet (Osona) Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 47: 363-367.
  • Ginés, A. "Inventario de especies cavernícolas en las Islas Baleares." Endins 9 (1982): 57-75.
  • Glaser F. 2009. Die Ameisen des Fürstentums Liechtenstein. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Amtlicher Lehrmittelverlag, Vaduz, 2009 (Naturkundliche Forschung im Fürstentum Liechtenstein; Bd. 26).
  • Glaser F., T. Kopf, and K. H. Steiberger. 2003. Ameisen (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) im Frastanzer Ried und den Illauen (Vorarlberg, Österreich) Artenspektrum, Gefährdung und Schutzempfehlungen. Vorarlberger Naturschau 13: 287-310.
  • Goetsch, W. "Beiträge zur Biologie spanischer Ameisen." EOS (Revista española de entomología) 18 (1942): 175-241.
  • Gouraud C. 2015. Bilan de l’année 2014 : Atlas des fourmis de Loire-Atlantique (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Atlas des Formicidae de Loire-Atlantique, compte rendu de la première année d’étude (2014)
  • Grandi G. 1935. Contributi alla conoscenza degli Imenotteri Aculeati. XV. Boll. R. Ist. Entomol. Univ. Studi Bologna 8: 27-121.
  • Gratiashvili N., Barjadze S. 2008. Checklist of the ants (Formicidae Latreille, 1809) of Georgia. Proceedings of the Institute of Zoology (Tbilisi) 23: 130-146.
  • Guénard B., and R. R. Dunn. 2012. A checklist of the ants of China. Zootaxa 3558: 1-77.
  • Jakubzik A., H. Kinkler, and K. Colln. 2010. Aculeate Hymenoptera from a Humid Biotope in Leverkusen-Steinbüchel. Decheniana (Bonn) 163: 145–158.
  • Jeffery H. G. 1931. The Formicidae (or ants) of the Isle of Wight. Proceedings of the Isle of Wight Natural History and Archaeological Society 2: 125-128. 
  • Karaman M. G. 2009. An introduction to the ant fauna of Macedonia (Balkan Peninsula), a check list (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Natura Montenegrina 8(3): 151-162.
  • Karaman M. G. 2011. A catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Montenegro. Podgorica: Catalogues 3, Volume 2, Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts, 140 pp.
  • Karaman M. G., and G. S. Karaman. 2007. Contribution to the Knowledge of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Special nature reserve Zasavica , Serbia. Zbornik “Naucno-strucni skup Zasavica 2007, Sremska Mitrovica, 67-75.
  • Karavaiev V. 1912. Ameisen aus dem paläarktischen Faunengebiete. Rus. Entomol. Obozr. 12: 581-596.
  • Kiran K., and C. Karaman. 2012. First annotated checklist of the ant fauna of Turkey (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 3548: 1-38.
  • Kiran K., and N. Aktac. 2006. The vertical distribution of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Samanh Mountains, Turkey. Linzer Biol. Beitr. 38(2): 1105-1122.
  • Kofler A. 1995. Nachtrag zur Ameisenfauna Osttirols (Tirol, Österreich) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecologische Nachrichten 1: 14-25.
  • Korlevic, A. "Prilozi fauni hrvatskih opnokrilaca." Glasn. Hrv. Narav. Dr. 5 (1890): 189-250.
  • Kugler J. 1988. The zoogeography of Israel. 9. The zoogeography of social insects of Israel and Sinai. Monographiae biologicae 62: 251-275.
  • LIebig, J., J. Heinze and B. Holldobler. 1995. Queen size variation in the ponerine ant Ponera coarctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Psyche 102(1-2):1-12
  • Lapeva-Gjonova A., and K. Kiran. 2012. Ant fauna (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Strandzha (Istranca) Mountain and adjacent Black Sea coast. North-western journal of Zoology 8(1): 72-84.
  • Legakis Collection Database
  • Lenoir A. 1971. Les fourmis de Touraine, leur intérêt biogéographique. Cahiers des Naturalistes 27: 21-30.
  • Livory A. 2003. Les fourmis de la Manche. L'Argiope 39: 25-49.
  • Lorinczi G. 2011. Density and spatial pattern of nests in sub-Mediterranean ground-dwelling ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Community Ecology 12(1): 51-57.
  • Lorinczi G. 2011. Lasius (Chthonolasius) nitidigaster Seifert, 1996 -a new ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for the Hungarian fauna. Natura Somogyiensis 19: 223-228.
  • Majzlan O., and P. Devan. 2009. Selected insect groups (Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Mecoptera, Raphidioptera) of the Rokoš Massif (Strážovské vrchy Mts.). Rosalia (Nitra), 20, p. 63–70.
  • Markó B., B. Sipos, S. Csősz, K. Kiss, I. Boros, and L. Gallé. 2006. A comprehensive list of the ants of Romania (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecologische Nachrichten 9: 65-76.
  • Martorell, M. "Catálogos sinonímicos de insectos encontrados en Cataluña." Barcelona (1879).
  • Mei, M. "Su alcune specie endogee o criptobiotiche della mirmecofauna italiana." Fragmenta Entomologica 23 (1992): 411-422.
  • Menozzi C. 1918. Primo contributo alla conoscenza della fauna mirmecologica del Modenese. Atti della Società dei Naturalisti e Matematici di Modena. (5)4: 81-88.
  • Menozzi C. 1921. Formiche dei dintorni di Sambiase di Calabria. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria della Reale Scuola Superiore d'Agricoltura. Portici. 15: 24-32.
  • Menozzi, C. "Zur Kenntnis der Ameisenfauna der Balearen." Zoologischer Anzeiger 66 (1926): 180-182.
  • Monteserín Real, S. "Invertebrados de la Reserva Natural Integral de Muniellos, Asturias: Formicidae." Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Ordenación del Territorio e Infraestructuras del Principado de Asturias KRK edicio (2003): 269.
  • Moser J. C. and M. S. Blum. 1960. The Formicidae of Louisiana. Insect Conditions in Louisiana 3: 48-50
  • Müller, G. "Le formiche della Venezia Guilia e della Dalmazia." Bollettino della Società Adriatica di Scienze Naturali in Trieste 28 (1923): 11-180.
  • Noordijk, J., R. Morssinkhof, P. Boer, A. P. Schaffers, Th. Heijerman and K. V. Sýkora. 2008. How ants find each other; temporal and spatial patterns in nuptial flights. Insectes Sociaux 55(3):266-273.
  • Nylander, W. "Synopsis des Formicides de France et d'Algérie." Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie (4)5 (1856): 51-109.
  • Ottonetti L., L. Tucci, and G. Santini. 2006. Recolonization Patterns of Ants in a Rehabilitated Lignite Mine in Central Italy: Potential for the Use of Mediterranean Ants as Indicators of Restoration Processes. Restoration Ecology 14(1): 60–66.
  • Paraschivescu D. 1978. Elemente balcanice in mirmecofauna R. S. Romania. Nymphaea 6: 463- 474.
  • Pascual, M. R. "Estudio taxonómico y ecológico de los Formícidos de las Sierras de Alfacar, La Yedra, Huétor y Harana." Tesis Doctoral Universida (1986): 264 pp.
  • Passera L. 1967. Peuplement en fourmis terricoles du rebord Meridional des Causses jurassiques du Quercy: la lande calcaire a buis. Vie et milieu. Serie C, Biologie terrestre 18(1): 189-205.
  • Petrov I. Z. 1986. Contribution to myrmecofauna in some oak-tree communities on the mountain Jastrebac. Prirodnjackog Muzeja i Beogradu Seriya B Bioloske Nauke Supplement: No. 41: 109-114.
  • Petrov I. Z. 2002. Contribution to the myrmecofauna (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) of the Banat Province (Serbia). Archives of Biological Sciences, Belgrade, 54(1–2): 57-64.
  • Petrov I. Z., and C. A. Collingwood. 1992. Survey of the myrmecofauna (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) of Yugoslavia. Archives of Biological Sciences (Belgrade) 44: 79-91.
  • Poldi B., M. Mei, and F. Rigato. 1995. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Vol 102. Checklist delle specie della fauna Italiana: 1-10.
  • Prado e Castro C., M. D. Garcia, C. Palma, and M. D. Martinez-Ibanez. 2014. First report on sarcosaprophagous Formicidae from Portugal (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Annales de la Société entomologique de France 50(1): 51-58.
  • Rodríguez, A. "Contribución al conocimiento de las hormigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) de Sierra Morena Central." Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 5 (1982): 181-188.
  • Ruzsky, M. 1923. Ants of Cheleken Island. Izv. Tomsk. Gos. Univ. 72(2nd p part: 1-6
  • Salata S., P. Zurawlew, and J. K. Kowalczyk. 2018. New distribution records of several ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Poland. Wiadomosci Entomologiczne 37(1): 46-53.
  • Salata S., and L. Borowiec. 2018. Taxonomic and faunistic notes on Greek ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annals of the Upper Silesian Museum in Bytom Entomology 27: 1-51.
  • Salata S., and L. Borowiec. 2019. Preliminary division of not socially parasitic Greek Temnothorax Mayr, 1861 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) with a description of three new species. ZooKeys 877: 81-131.
  • Sanchez-Gil Jimeno R., and J. L. Reyes-Lopez. 2016. Study of ants species of the Sierra de San Carlos del Valle (Ciudad Real) and updating the provincial check list (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Boln. Asoc. esp. Ent. 40 (1-2): 93-109.
  • Santschi F. 1910. Contributions à la faune entomologique de la Roumanie. Formicides capturées par Mr. A. L. Montandon. Buletinul Societatii Române de Stiinte 19: 648-652.
  • Santschi, F. "Nouvelles fourmis paléarctiques. 3ème. Note." Boletín de la Real Sociedad española de Historia natural (Madrid) 21 (1921): 165-170.
  • Schlick-Steiner B. C., and F. M. Steiner. 1999. Faunistisch-ökologische Untersuchungen an den freilebenden Ameisen (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Wiens. Myrmecologische Nachrichten 3: 9-53.
  • Schlick-Steiner, B.C., F.M. Steiner, K. Moder, A. Bruckner, K. Fiedler and E. Christian. 2006. Assessing ant assemblages: pitfall trapping versus nest counting (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Insectes Sociaux 53:274-281
  • Seifert B. 1982. The ant fauna of a grassland-wood-catena in the Leutratal near Jena (Thuringen, GDR). Abh. Ber. Naturkundemus, Gorlitz 56(6): 1-18.
  • Seifert B. 1994. Die freilebenden Ameisenarten Deutschlands (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) und Angaben zu deren Taxonomie und Verbreitung. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Naturkundemuseums Görlitz 67(3): 1-44.
  • Seifert B. 1998. Rote Liste der Ameisen. - in: M. Binot, R. Bless, P. Boye, H. Gruttke und P. Pretscher: Rote Liste gefährdeter Tiere Deutschlands. Bonn-Bad Godesberg 1998: 130-133.
  • Sellier Y., C. Galkowski, C. Lebas, and P. Wegnez. 2016. Découverte de Temnothorax pardoi (Tinaut, 1987) dans la réserve naturelle nationale du Pinail (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Revue de l’Association Roussillonnaise d’Entomologie 25(2): 106-113.
  • Sommer F., and H. Cagniant. 1988. Peuplements de fourmis des Albères Orientales (Pyrénées-Orientales, France) (Première partie). Vie Milieu 38: 189-200.
  • Sonnenburg H. 2005. Die Ameisenfauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Niedersachsens und Bremens. Braunschweiger Naturkundliche Schriften 7: 377-441.
  • Steiner F. M., S. Schödl, and B. C. Schlick-Steiner. 2002. Liste der Ameisen Österreichs (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Stand Oktober 2002. Beiträge zur Entomofaunistik 3: 17-25.
  • Stumper R. 1953. Etudes myrmecologiques. XI. Fourmis luxembourgeoises. Bulletin Soc. Nat. luxemb. 57: 122-135.
  • Tanquary M. C. 1912. A preliminary list of ants from Illinois. Trans. Ill. Acad. Sci. 4: 137-142.
  • Tausan I., M. M. Jerpel, I. R. Puscasu, C. Sadeanu, R. E. Brutatu, L. A. Radutiu, and V. Giurescu. 2012. Ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Sibiu County (Transylvania, Romania). Brukenthal. Acta Musei 7(3): 499-520.
  • Taylor R. W. 1967. A monographic revision of the ant genus Ponera Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pacific Insects Monograph 13: 1-112.
  • Tinaut A. 2016. Ants of the Tejeda, Almijara and Alhama Mountains Natural Park (Andalusia, Spain) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Boln. Asoc. esp. Ent., 40 (1-2): 125-159.
  • Tinaut, A., J. Jiménez Rojas, and R. Pascual. "Estudio de la mirmecofauna de los bosques de Quercus Linneo 1753 de la provincia de Granada." Ecología 8 (1995): 429-438.
  • Tinaut, A., M. D. Martínez Ibáñez, and F. Ruano. "Inventario de las especies de formícidos de Sierra Nevada, Granada (España) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Zoología Baetica 18 (2007): 49-68.
  • Verdcourt, B. 2004. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew XXXV. Miscellaneous Records. Kew Bulletin 59(4):639-649
  • Vonshak M., and A. Ionescu-Hirsch. 2009. A checklist of the ants of Israel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Israel Journal of Entomology 39: 33-55.
  • Wegnez P. 2014. Premières captures de Lasius distinguendus Emery, 1916 et de Temnothorax albipennis (Curtis, 1854) au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg (Hymenoptera : Formicidae). Bulletin de la Société royale belge d’Entomologie 150 (2014) : 168-171.
  • Wegnez P. 2017. Découverte de Myrmica lobicornis Nylander, 1846 et Lasius jensi Seifert, 1982, deux nouvelles espèces pour le Grand-Duché de Luxembourg (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin de la Société royale belge d’Entomologie 153: 46-49.
  • Wegnez P. 2018. Premières decouvertes de Myrmica bibikoffi Kutter, 1963 et de Ponera testacea Emery, 1895, au Luxembourg (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)Bulletin de la Société royale belge d’Entomologie 154: 263–272.
  • Wegnez P., and M. Fichaux. 2015. Liste actualisee des especes de fourmis repertoriees au Grand-Duche de Luxembourg (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin de la Société royale belge d’Entomologie 151: 150-165
  • Wheeler W. M. 1900. The habits of Ponera and Stigmatomma. Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole). 2: 43-69.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VIII. A synonymic list of the ants of the Ethiopian region. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 45: 711-1004
  • Wheeler, William Morton. 1928. Ants of Nantucket Island, Mass. Psyche. 35(1):10-11.
  • Zimmermann, S. "Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Ameisenfauna Süddalmatiens." Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanisch Gesellschaft in Wien 84 (1935): 1-65.
  • del Campo Gracia P., M. D. Martinez Ibanez, A. Tinaut, and S. Montagud Alario. 2014. Faunistic study of the Formicidae (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from the Comunitat Valenciana (Spain). Boln. Asoc. esp. Ent. 38 (1-2): 33-65.
  • Çamlitepe Y. 2002. Notes on the morphometric characters of Ponera coarctata (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Biológia (Bratisl.) 57: 277-280.