Camponotus aethiops

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Camponotus aethiops
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Camponotini
Genus: Camponotus
Species: C. aethiops
Binomial name
Camponotus aethiops
(Latreille, 1798)

Camponotus aethiops casent0179459 p 1 high.jpg

Camponotus aethiops casent0179459 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Subspecies
Synonyms

This is a common European species distributed from Germany to Italy and from Spain to southern Russia. It can also be found in north-west Africa, Asia Minor, the Caucasus, Near East, Iran, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan (Radchenko 1997c). It inhabits xerotherm grasslands and shrub areas, especially in Mediterranean habitats. Nests are built in the soil. (Marko et al., 2009; Rigato & Toni, 2011). Pashaei Rad et al. (2018) found this species in Iran on a plant and the ground in a moderate to low rainfall area.

Identification

Ionescu-Hirsch (2009) - C. aethiops is a member of the subgenus Tanaemyrmex, recognized by its small size, the head with erect setae on the genae and ventral surface, the tibiae slightly compressed laterally and without a dorsomedial ridge, covered only with apressed pubescence in addition to a ventral row of bristles, and its black to reddish-black body. Major workers have matte head and mesosoma dorsum.

Several varieties of C. aethiops were described based on color, shape of the propodeum, and strength of their sculpture (see Emery, 1908). The Israeli specimens show a variability in these features that encompasses all Eastern Mediterranean forms of C. aethiops, although these features are not “correlated”, as stated in the original description. Workers in one series are similar to syntypes of var. concava Forel (Kugler, personal communication) because of their distinctly concave propodeal dorsum in lateral view and black body with reddish legs. However, in other series, the propodeal shape and color differ: the propodeal dorsum in lateral view varies from distinctly concave to straight, and the body color varies from completely black, to partly black with head and mesosoma dark brown; while the legs range from black to ferruginous-brown or brownish-yellow.

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Ionescu-Hirsch (2009) - Western Palaearctic, from Germany to Kazakhstan, and the western Mediterranean through southern Europe and Asia Minor to Afghanistan (Radchenko, 1997b) and Israel.

Borowiec & Salata (2020): Although Camponotus aethiops was recorded from Israel, its occurrence in Jordan needs confirmation. Recent studies on the Camponotus aethiops group in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Basin showed that this taxon is a group of at least two cryptic species: true C. aethiops and Camponotus oertzeni. Our studies on Balkan populations indicate that C. oertzeni is a more thermophilic than C. aethiops and is much more common in arid habitats. Thus, materials of C. aethiops complex from the Middle East should be revised.

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Afrotropical Region: Saudi Arabia.
Palaearctic Region: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Balearic Islands, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (type locality), Georgia, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Iberian Peninsula, Iran, Israel, Italy, Malta, Montenegro, Portugal, Republic of Macedonia, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine.


Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Associations with other Organisms

Other Insects

Mites

Fungi

  • This species is a host for the fungus Laboulbenia camponoti (a pathogen) (Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012).

Nematode

  • This species is a host for the nematode Camponotimermis bifidus (a parasite) (Ipateva et al., 1990).
  • This species is a host for the nematode Comanimermis clujensis (a parasite) (Coman, 1953).

Life History Traits

  • Mean colony size: 2,500 (Beckers et al., 1989)
  • Foraging behaviour: solitary forager (Beckers et al., 1989)

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • aethiops. Formica aethiops Latreille, 1798: 35 (w.q.m.) FRANCE.
    • Combination in Camponotus: Mayr, 1861: 36 (in key);
    • combination in C. (Myrmoturba): Forel, 1914a: 266;
    • combination in C. (Tanaemyrmex): Emery, 1925b: 97.
    • Subspecies of sylvaticus: Forel, 1874: 38 (in key); Emery & Forel, 1879: 448; Forel, 1879a: 64; Mayr, 1880: 22; Emery, 1881b: 526; André, 1882a: 146; Forel, 1886e: clxvii; Nasonov, 1889: 11.
    • Subspecies of rubripes: Forel, 1886f: 143; Emery, 1887a: 212 (footnote); Forel, 1889: 263.
    • Subspecies of maculatus: Forel, 1892i: 306; Emery, 1894j: 9; Ruzsky, 1896: 68; Emery, 1896d: 371 (in list); Ruzsky, 1902d: 6; Forel, 1904b: 378; Forel, 1904c: 29; Ruzsky, 1905b: 209; Emery, 1905d: 36; Forel, 1906c: 189; Forel, 1907e: 16; Emery, 1908a: 199; Emery, 1908d: 24; Forel, 1909c: 105; Bondroit, 1910: 487; Forel, 1910a: 23; Forel, 1911d: 359; Krausse, 1912b: 166; Forel, 1914a: 266; Stitz, 1914: 96; Emery, 1914d: 159; Emery, 1915h: 2; Forel, 1915d: 70 (in key); Emery, 1916b: 224; Wheeler, W.M. & Mann, 1916: 174; Escherich, 1917: 330 (in key); Menozzi, 1918: 87; Santschi, 1919e: 247; Soudek, 1922: 92; Finzi, 1923: 4; Finzi, 1924a: 14; Karavaiev, 1926e: 190; Donisthorpe, 1926b: 17; Karavaiev, 1927a: 294; Karavaiev, 1927c: 276 (in key); Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1929b: 36.
    • Status as species: Latreille, 1802c: 101; Jurine, 1807: 272; Latreille, 1817d: 97; Losana, 1834: 312; Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835: 212; Schenck, 1852: 124; Mayr, 1855: 313 (redescription); Nylander, 1856b: 54; Gredler, 1858: 4; Smith, F. 1858b: 9; Dumeril, 1860: 929; Mayr, 1861: 36 (in key); Mayr, 1863: 397; Roger, 1863b: 1; Emery, 1869b: 2; Dours, 1873: 164; André, 1874: 177 (in key); Mayr, 1877: 20 (in list); Emery, 1878a: viii (in list); Emery, 1878b: 44; Dalla Torre, 1893: 220; Forel, 1895d: 227; Emery, 1898c: 125; Forel, 1904f: 425; Bondroit, 1918: 72; Emery, 1920b: 255; Emery, 1920c: 7, 11 (in key); Santschi, 1921a: 116; Menozzi, 1922b: 331; Müller, 1923b: 154; Emery, 1925b: 97; Schkaff, 1925: 275; Santschi, 1926f: 288; Donisthorpe, 1927a: 8; Finzi, 1930d: 317; Cori & Finzi, 1931: 240; Santschi, 1931a: 11; Soudek, 1931: 19; Santschi, 1932c: 71; Santschi, 1932g: 4; Arnol'di, 1933b: 602 (in key); Finzi, 1933: 165; Grandi, 1935: 102; Karavaiev, 1935b: 108; Zimmermann, 1935: 56; Menozzi, 1936d: 300; Karavaiev, 1936: 185 (redescription); Stitz, 1939: 248; Novák & Sadil, 1941: 110 (in key); Röszler, 1942a: 54; Arnol'di, 1948: 212 (in list); Donisthorpe, 1950e: 1066; Röszler, 1951: 91; Consani & Zangheri, 1952: 43; Ceballos, 1956: 311; Bernard, 1959: 350; Pisarski, 1961a: 164; Baroni Urbani, 1964a: 7; Baroni Urbani, 1964b: 59; Baroni Urbani, 1964c: 160; Bernard, 1967: 336 (redescription); Arnol’di, 1967: 1829; Kutter, 1968a: 60; Baroni Urbani, 1969a: 334; Collingwood & Yarrow, 1969: 82; Pisarski, 1970: 322; Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 181; Collingwood, 1971: 164; Baroni Urbani, 1974: 237; Pisarski, 1975: 31; Aktaç, 1977: 125; Kutter, 1977c: 206; Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 551; Collingwood, 1978: 91 (in key); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 58; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b: 284 (in key); Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 128; Le Moli & Rosi, 1991: 35; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 217; Collingwood, 1993b: 195; Arakelian, 1994: 83; Bolton, 1995b: 84; Poldi, et al. 1995: 7; Radchenko, 1996b: 1201 (in key); Espadaler, 1997b: 27; Radchenko, 1997d: 806; Collingwood & Prince, 1998: 24 (in key); Gallé, et al. 1998: 216; Karaman, M.G. & Karaman, 2003: 46; Csösz, & Markó, 2005: 227; Bračko, 2006: 144; Markó, Sipos, et al. 2006: 66; Petrov, 2006: 109 (in key); Bračko, 2007: 19; Seifert, 2007: 268; Werner & Wiezik, 2007: 143; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008: 131; Paknia, et al. 2008: 153; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowsky, 2009: 479; Vonshak, et al. 2009: 38; Ionescu-Hirsch, 2010: 62; Lapeva-Gjonova, et al. 2010: 41; Csösz, et al. 2011: 58; Karaman, C. et al. 2011: 189; Karaman, M.G. 2011b: 67; Legakis, 2011: 28; Ran & Zhou, 2011: 66; Borowiec, L. & Salata, 2012: 471; Guénard & Dunn, 2012: 27; Kiran & Karaman, 2012: 5; Karaman, C. & Aktaç, 2013: 53 (in key); Borowiec, L. 2014: 25 (see note in bibliography); Bračko, et al. 2014: 18; Lebas, et al. 2016: 146; Radchenko, 2016: 336; Borowiec, L. & Salata, 2018: 4; Salata & Borowiec, 2018c: 43; Seifert, 2018: 265.
    • Senior synonym of angustata: Emery, 1908a: 199; Emery, 1925b: 97; Karavaiev, 1936: 185; Bolton, 1995b: 84; Radchenko, 1997d: 806; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowsky, 2009: 479; Radchenko, 2016: 336.
    • Senior synonym of concava: Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 58; Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 128; Arakelian, 1994: 83; Bolton, 1995b: 93; Radchenko, 1997d: 806; Karaman, M.G. 2011b: 67; Legakis, 2011: 29; Radchenko, 2016: 336.
    • Senior synonym of glaber: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 128; Arakelian, 1994: 83; Bolton, 1995b: 84; Radchenko, 1997d: 806; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008: 131; Radchenko, 2016: 337.
    • Senior synonym of hyalinipennis: Emery, 1914e: 2; Emery, 1915a: 250; Emery, 1916b: 224; Emery, 1925b: 97; Karavaiev, 1936: 185; Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 181; Bolton, 1995b: 84; Radchenko, 1997d: 806; Radchenko, 2016: 336.
    • Senior synonym of marginata: Pisarski, 1975: 31; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 58; Arakelian, 1994: 83; Bolton, 1995b: 84; Radchenko, 1997d: 806; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowsky, 2009: 479; Csösz, et al. 2011: 58; Radchenko, 2016: 336.
    • Senior synonym of nigrata: Mayr, 1855: 313; Nylander, 1856b: 54; Smith, F. 1858b: 10; Mayr, 1861: 77; Mayr, 1863: 398; Roger, 1863b: 1; Dours, 1873: 164; André, 1874: 201 (in list); Forel, 1874: 96 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 448; Dalla Torre, 1893: 220; Emery, 1925b: 97; Karavaiev, 1936: 185; Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 181; Bolton, 1995b: 84; Radchenko, 1997d: 806; Radchenko, 2007: 38; Radchenko, 2016: 336.
    • Senior synonym of sylvaticoaethiops: Pisarski, 1961a: 164; Pisarski, 1975: 31; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 58; Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 128; Arakelian, 1994: 84; Bolton, 1995b: 84; Radchenko, 1997d: 806; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008: 131; Radchenko, 2016: 336.
    • Senior synonym of sylvaticoides: Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 58; Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 128; Arakelian, 1994: 84; Bolton, 1995b: 84; Radchenko, 1997d: 806; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008: 131; Radchenko, 2016: 336.
    • Current subspecies: nominal plus cachmiriensis, escherichi.
  • angustata. Formica angustata Latreille, 1798: 34 (w.m.) FRANCE.
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Emery, 1896d: 371 (in list).
    • Subspecies of kiesenwetteri: Forel, 1889: 261.
    • Subspecies of aethiops: Latreille, 1802c: 102 (in text); Dalla Torre, 1893: 221.
    • Junior synonym of aethiops: Emery, 1908a: 199; Emery, 1925b: 97; Karavaiev, 1936: 185; Bolton, 1995b: 85; Radchenko, 1997d: 806; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowsky, 2009: 479; Radchenko, 2016: 336.
  • concava. Camponotus aethiops var. concava Dalla Torre, 1893: 221.
    • [First available use of Camponotus rubripes r. aethiops var. concavus Forel, 1889: 263 (s.w.) GREECE; unavailable (infrasubspecific) name.]
    • Finzi, 1930d: 317 (q.); Menozzi, 1936d: 301 (l.).
    • Combination in C. (Tanaemyrmex): Emery, 1925b: 97.
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Forel, 1892i: 306; Emery, 1894j: 9; Emery, 1896d: 371 (in list); Emery 1897f: 239; Emery, 1901e: 57; Ruzsky, 1902d: 6; Forel, 1904b: 378 Ruzsky, 1905b: 212; Emery, 1908a: 200; Emery, 1915h: 2; Wheeler, W.M. & Mann, 1916: 174; Emery, 1920c: 7; Karavaiev, 1926e: 190; Karavaiev, 1927a: 294.
    • Subspecies of aethiops: Ruzsky, 1902d: 6; Emery, 1925b: 97; Finzi, 1928c: 791; Finzi, 1930d: 317; Menozzi, 1933b: 82 (in key); Zimmermann, 1935: 57; Menozzi, 1936d: 300; Finzi, 1939c: 158; Arnol'di, 1967: 1829; Pisarski, 1970: 322.
    • Status as species: Kugler, J. 1988: 259; Borowiec, L. & Salata, 2012: 474; Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, 2014: 138.
    • Junior synonym of aethiops: Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 58; Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 128; Arakelian, 1994: 83; Bolton, 1995b: 93; Radchenko, 1997d: 806; Legakis, 2011: 29; Radchenko, 2016: 336.
  • glaber. Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) aethiops var. glaber Emery, 1925b: 97.
    • [First available use of Camponotus maculatus subsp. aethiops var. glaber Ruzsky, 1905b: 213 (w.) GEORGIA, RUSSIA (Daghestan); unavailable (infrasubspecific) name.]
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Emery, 1908a: 200; Emery, 1920c: 7.
    • Junior synonym of aethiops: Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 128; Arakelian, 1994: 83; Bolton, 1995b: 102; Radchenko, 1997d: 806; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008: 131; Radchenko, 2016: 337.
  • hyalinipennis. Camponotus marginatus var. hyalinipennis Costa, 1884: 56 (q.) ITALY (Sardinia).
    • [Misspelled as hyalipennis by Karavaiev, 1936: 185, Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 181.]
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Emery, 1896d: 373 (in list).
    • Subspecies of marginata: Dalla Torre, 1893: 242.
    • Junior synonym of aethiops: Emery, 1914e: 2; Emery, 1915a: 250; Emery, 1916b: 224; Emery, 1925b: 97; Karavaiev, 1936: 185; Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 181; Bolton, 1995b: 104; Radchenko, 1997d: 806; Radchenko, 2016: 336.
  • marginata. Formica marginata Latreille, 1798: 35 (w.q.) FRANCE.
    • Mayr, 1855: 316 (m.).
    • Combination in Camponotus: Mayr, 1861: 36 (in key);
    • combination in C. (Myrmoturba): Forel, 1915d: 70;
    • combination in C. (Tanaemyrmex): Emery, 1925b: 97.
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Forel, 1906c: 189; Emery, 1908a: 199; Forel, 1915d: 70 (in key); Emery, 1916b: 225; Emery, 1920c: 7; Soudek, 1922: 93; Soudek, 1925b: 16; Karavaiev, 1926e: 190; Karavaiev, 1927a: 294.
    • Status as species: Latreille, 1802c: 103; Losana, 1834: 313; Schenck, 1852: 125; Mayr, 1855: 314 (redescription); Nylander, 1856b: 54; Gredler, 1858: 4; Smith, F. 1858b: 11; Roger, 1859: 227; Mayr, 1861: 36 (in key); Roger, 1862c: 292; Mayr, 1863: 400; Roger, 1863b: 1; André, 1874: 176 (in key), 201 (second entry in list); Forel, 1874: 40 (in key); Mayr, 1877: 4; Emery, 1878b: 44; Mayr, 1879: 645; Emery & Forel, 1879: 448; Forel, 1879a: 82; Mayr, 1880: 24; André, 1882a: 140 (in key); Mayr, 1886d: 423; Forel, 1886f: 142; Cresson, 1887: 255; Provancher, 1887: 230 (in key); Nasonov, 1889: 10; Forel, 1892i: 306; Dalla Torre, 1893: 242; Emery, 1893i: 675; Pergande, 1893: 28; Ruzsky, 1895: 9; Ruzsky, 1896: 68; Emery, 1896d: 373 (in list); Emery, 1898a: 226; Emery, 1898c: 150; Ruzsky, 1902d: 7; Bingham, 1903: 369; Ruzsky, 1905b: 244; Wheeler, W.M. 1906b: 24; Bondroit, 1910: 487; Karavaiev, 1912b: 596; Gösswald, 1932: 26; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 253; Baroni Urbani, 1964b: 60; Baroni Urbani, 1964c: 161; Collingwood & Yarrow, 1969: 82; Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 184; Le Moli & Rosi, 1991: 35 (error); Poldi, et al. 1995: 7 (error); Gallé, et al. 1998: 216 (error); Karmaly & Narendran, 2006: 83 (error).
    • Subspecies of aethiops: Bondroit, 1918: 73; Emery, 1921b: 208; Emery, 1925b: 97; Menozzi, 1925d: 35; Santschi, 1926f: 288; Finzi, 1928c: 791; Soudek, 1931: 19; Grandi, 1935: 102; Zimmermann, 1935: 57; Stitz, 1939: 251; Novák & Sadil, 1941: 110 (in key); Ceballos, 1956: 311.
    • Junior synonym of sylvaticus: Mayr, 1863: 401; Mayr, 1865: 27; André, 1874: 201 (first entry in list).
    • Junior synonym of fallax: Arnol'di, 1933b: 601 (in key).
    • Junior synonym of aethiops: Pisarski, 1975: 31; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 58; Arakelian, 1994: 83; Bolton, 1995b: 110; Radchenko, 1997d: 806; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowsky, 2009: 479; Csösz, et al. 2011: 58; Radchenko, 2016: 336.
  • nigrata. Formica nigrata Nylander, 1849: 35 (w.q.m.) ITALY (Sicily), RUSSIA (no state data, “Rossia meridionali”).
    • Status as species: Smith, F. 1858b: 10.
    • Junior synonym of aethiops: Mayr, 1855: 313; Nylander, 1856b: 54; Smith, F. 1858b: 10; Mayr, 1861: 77; Mayr, 1863: 398; Roger, 1863b: 1; Dours, 1873: 164; André, 1874: 201 (in list); Forel, 1874: 96 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 448; Dalla Torre, 1893: 220; Emery, 1925b: 97; Karavaiev, 1936: 185; Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 181; Bolton, 1995b: 113; Radchenko, 1997d: 806; Radchenko, 2007: 38; Radchenko, 2016: 336.
  • sylvaticoaethiops. Camponotus sylvaticus var. sylvaticoaethiops Forel, 1874: 39 (w.q.m.) SWITZERLAND.
    • [Misspelled as silvaticoaethiops by Dalla Torre, 1893: 221.]
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Emery & Forel, 1879: 448; Forel, 1879a: 62; André, 1882a: 145; Forel, 1886f: 143, 150; Emery, 1896d: 371 (in list); Ruzsky, 1902d: 6; Ruzsky, 1905b: 212.
    • Subspecies of aethiops: Dalla Torre, 1893: 221; Emery, 1925b: 97 (error).
    • Junior synonym of marginata: Forel, 1915d: 70 (in key) ; Karmaly & Narendran, 2006: 83 (error).
    • Junior synonym of aethiops: Pisarski, 1961a: 164; Pisarski, 1975: 31; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 58; Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 128; Arakelian, 1994: 84; Bolton, 1995b: 84; Radchenko, 1997d: 806; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008: 131; Radchenko, 2016: 336.
  • sylvaticoides. Camponotus aethiops var. silvaticoides Dalla Torre, 1893: 221.
    • [First available use of Camponotus maculatus r. aethiops var. sylvaticoides Forel, 1892i: 306 (s.w.) BULGARIA; unavailable (infrasubspecific) name.]
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Emery, 1896d: 371 (in list); Ruzsky, 1902d: 7; Ruzsky, 1905b: 212.
    • Subspecies of aethiops: Müller, 1923b: 156; Emery, 1925b: 97; Zimmermann, 1935: 57.
    • Junior synonym of aethiops: Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 58; Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 128; Arakelian, 1994: 84; Bolton, 1995b: 126; Radchenko, 1997d: 806; Gratiashvili & Barjadze, 2008: 131; Radchenko, 2016: 336.

Determination Clarifications

The species from Lebanon that was formerly identified as Camponotus concavus Forel (junior synonym of C. aethiops in Bolton et al., 2006) by Tohmé (1969a) was reidentified as Camponotus sannini by Tohmé and Tohmé (1999). Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

Ionescu-Hirsch (2009) - TL = 4.9–9.5, HL = 1.15–2.54, HW = 0.86–2.50, EL = 0.35–0.51, SL = 1.29–2.19, ML = 1.76–3.16, MW = 0.74–1.56, mTbL = 1.09–1.84, hTbL = 1.43–2.50 (n = 40).

Karyotype

  • 2n = 42 (France; old Yugoslavia) (Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1983).

References

  • Ionescu-Hirsch, A. 2010 (2009). An annotated list of Camponotus of Israel, with a key and descriptions of new species. Israel Journal of Entomology. 39:57-98.
  • Agosti, D.; Collingwood, C. A. 1987a. A provisional list of the Balkan ants (Hym. Formicidae) and a key to the worker caste. I. Synonymic list. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 60: 51-62 (page 58, senior synonym of marginata (and its junior synonym sylvaticoaethiops), senior synonym of concava and sylvaticoides)
  • Arnol'di, K. V.; Dlussky, G. M. 1978. Superfam. Formicoidea. 1. Fam. Formicidae - ants. Pp. 519-556 in: Medvedev, G. S. (ed.) Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR. Vol. 3. Hymenoptera. Part 1. Opredeliteli Faune SSSR 119:3-584. (page 551, revived status as species)
  • Atanassov, N.; Dlussky, G. M. 1992. Fauna of Bulgaria. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Fauna Bûlg. 22: 1-310 (page 217, revived status as species)
  • Beckers R., Goss, S., Deneubourg, J.L., Pasteels, J.M. 1989. Colony size, communication and ant foraging Strategy. Psyche 96: 239-256 (doi:10.1155/1989/94279).
  • Bernard, F. 1967a [1968]. Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp. (page 336, revived status as species)
  • Bondroit, J. 1918. Les fourmis de France et de Belgique. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 87: 1-174 (page 72, revived status as species)
  • Borowiec, L., Salata, S. 2020. Review of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Jordan. Annals of the Upper Silesian Museum in Bytom, Entomology 29 (online 2): 1-26 (doi:10.5281/zenodo.3733156).
  • Coman, D. 1953. Mermithide freatice in fauna Republich Populare Romane. Academia Republicii Populare Romıne, Studii si Cercetari stiint, Serii, vol. 2, 123–152.
  • Da Silva, R. A., A. A. Khaustov, J. M. S. Lopes, J. H. C. Delabie, and A. R. Oliveira. 2017. A new species of Petalomium from Brazil with a redescription of Petalomium gottrauxi Mahunka 1977 (Acari: Heterostigmatina: Neopygmephoridae). Systematic and Applied Acarology. 22:1800-1812. doi:10.11158/saa.22.11.2
  • Dlussky, G. M.; Soyunov, O. S.; Zabelin, S. I. 1990 [1989]. Ants of Turkmenistan. Ashkhabad: Ylym Press, 273 pp. (page 128, senior synonym of glaber)
  • Dušátková, L.P., Pekár, S., Michálek, O., Líznarová, E., Symondson, W.O.C. 2020. Estimation of trophic niches in myrmecophagous spider predators. Scientific Reports 10: 8683 (doi:10.1038/s41598-020-65623-8).
  • Emery, C. 1898c. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der palaearktischen Ameisen. Öfvers. Fin. Vetensk.-Soc. Förh. 20: 124-151 (page 125, revived status as species)
  • Emery, C. 1908a. Beiträge zur Monographie der Formiciden des paläarktischen Faunengebietes. Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 1908: 165-205 (page 199, race/subspecies of maculatus, senior synonym of angustata)
  • Emery, C. 1914d. Note sulle formiche della collezione sarda e della collezione dell'Italia meridionale, radunate da Achille Costa, e conservate nel Museo Zoologico della R. Università di Napoli. Annu. Mus. Zool. R. Univ. Napoli (n.s.)4(1 18: 1-3 (page 2, senior synonym of hyalinipennis)
  • Emery, C. 1915a. Contributo alla conoscenza delle formiche delle isole italiane. Descrizione di forme mediterrannee nuove o critiche. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 46[=(3)(6): 244-270 (page 250, senior synonym of hyalinipennis)
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