Temnothorax unifasciatus

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Temnothorax unifasciatus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Temnothorax
Species group: tuberum
Species: T. unifasciatus
Binomial name
Temnothorax unifasciatus
(Latreille, 1798)

Temnothorax unifasciatus casent0173188 profile 1.jpg

Temnothorax unifasciatus casent0173188 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Subspecies
Synonyms
At a Glance • Tandem running  

 

Identification

Yellowish with the head often brown and the gaster characteristically having a dark band across the first gaster segment. The propodeal spines are short but strong and distinct. The outline of the alitrunk is more flattened than in L. interruptus and the petiole node in the worker has a distinct dorsal truncate area which meets the anterior face at a clearly defined angle. Length: 2.8-3.5 mm (Collingwood 1979).

Distribution

An abundant species throughout Central and South Europe from Spain, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Switzerland to the Caucasus and from South Italy to North Germany and the Netherlands (Collingwood 1979).

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Channel Islands, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (type locality), Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iberian Peninsula, Israel, Italy, Jersey, Kazakhstan, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Macedonia, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.


Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Collingwood (1979) - This widely distributed and common species is rather similar to Temnothorax tuberum but is slightly larger and in the female castes easily distinguished by the banded gaster. It nests among rocks and under stones but also frequently occurs under bark. Individual colonies are usually more populous than the other North European Temnothorax species with workers numbering 200 or more. Alatae are found in July and August.

This species is a host for the slave-making species Temnothorax gordiagini (Buschinger et al., 1984), Temnothorax kutteri (rare host) (Espadaler & Restrepo, 1983; Buschinger et al., 1988), Temnothorax muellerianus (a common host) (Buschinger et al., 1988), Temnothorax ravouxi (Czechowski & Czechowska, 2000) and Temnothorax tamarae (Gratiashvili et al., 2014, needs confirmation).

Fungi

This species is a host for the fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum (a pathogen) (Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012).

Life History Traits

  • Queen number: monogynous (Buschinger, 1968; Frumhoff & Ward, 1992)
  • Mean colony size: 325 (Lane, 1977; Beckers et al., 1989)
  • Foraging behaviour: tandem recruitment (Lane, 1977; Beckers et al., 1989)

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • unifasciatus. Formica unifasciata Latreille, 1798: 47 (w.q.m.) FRANCE. Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1955b: 25 (l.). Combination in Manica: Jurine, 1807: 279; in Leptothorax: Mayr, 1855: 444; in Temnothorax: Bolton, 2003: 272. Subspecies of tuberum: Forel, 1874: 85; Emery & Forel, 1879: 459; André, 1883a: 299; Forel, 1890a: lxxv; Emery, 1891b: 5; Bondroit, 1910: 497; Emery, 1916b: 175; Finzi, 1924a: 13; Menozzi, 1925d: 28; Karavaiev, 1926c: 163. Status as species: Saunders, E. 1880: 220; Nasonov, 1889: 32; Dalla Torre, 1893: 129; Ruzsky, 1902d: 21; Bondroit, 1912: 351; Bondroit, 1918: 131; Müller, 1923: 91; Finzi, 1928b: 130; Finzi, 1930d: 314; Finzi, 1933: 164; Boven, 1947: 179; Bernard, 1967: 211; Kutter, 1977c: 134; Collingwood, 1979: 76; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 144. Senior synonym of anoplogynus: Emery, 1916b: 175; of unifasciatointerruptus Kutter, 1977c: 14; of cordieri and material of the unavailable name paolii referred here: Casevitz-Weulersse, 1990b: 417; of brauneri Karavaiev, kirillovi, salina, ucrainicus: Radchenko, 1995c: 15; of volubilis: Cagniant & Espadaler, 1997: 274. Current subspecies: nominal plus obenbergeri, staegeri, unifasciatonigriceps.
  • anoplogynus. Leptothorax anoplogynus Emery, 1869b: 15 (w.q.) ITALY. Subspecies of tuberum: André, 1883a: 300; of unifasciatus: Ruzsky, 1902d: 22. Junior synonym of unifasciatus: Emery, 1916b: 175.
  • unifasciatointerruptus. Leptothorax tuberum var. unifasciatointerruptus Forel, 1874: 86 (m.) SWITZERLAND. Subspecies of unifasciatus: Bondroit, 1918: 131. Junior synonym of unifasciatus: Kutter, 1977c: 14.
  • kirillovi. Leptothorax tuberum subsp. kirillovi Ruzsky, 1905b: 591, fig. 140 (w.) KAZAKHSTAN. Junior synonym of unifasciatus: Radchenko, 1995c: 15.
  • volubilis. Leptothorax volubilis Santschi, 1929e: 155, fig. 5 (w.q.) MOROCCO. Junior synonym of unifasciatus: Cagniant & Espadaler, 1997: 274.
  • brauneri. Leptothorax (Leptothorax) tuberum var. brauneri Karavaiev, 1937: 172, fig. 2 (w.) RUSSIA. [Junior primary homonym of brauneri Ruzsky, above.] Replacement name: brauniella Radchenko, 1995c: 15.
  • salina. Leptothorax tuberum var. salina Karavaiev, 1937: 174, fig. 2 (w.) UKRAINE. Junior synonym of unifasciatus: Radchenko, 1995c: 15.
  • ucrainicus. Leptothorax unifasciatus subsp. ucrainicus Arnol'di, 1977a: 204 (w.) UKRAINE. Junior synonym of unifasciatus: Radchenko, 1995c: 15.
  • brauniella. Leptothorax tuberum brauniella Radchenko, 1995c: 15. Replacement name for brauneri Karavaiev, above. [Junior primary homonym of brauneri Ruzsky, 1905b: 603.] Junior synonym of of unifasciatus: Radchenko, 1995c: 15.

Taxonomic Notes

Plateaux, L. & Cagniant, H. 2012: 436: We conclude from all these observations that Leptothorax tuberum unifasciatointerruptus is a hybrid of Temnothorax unifasciatus and Temnothorax albipennis. Hybridization works in both directions, parents may be alternately of the two species, and males are from the parthenogenetic egg of the queen mother. Note that both species exist also in places (especially in Luberon and Ventoux) where the where the form was found. We therefore ask: T. albipennis x T. unifasciatus = L. tuberum unifasciatointerruptus Forel.

Salata & Borowiec (2019): Results presented by Prebus (2017) suggest that the tuberum species group (sensu Cagniant and Espadaler 1997) and unifasciatus species group (sensu Bernard 1967) are paraphyletic. In both cases species groups were defined based on West-Mediterranean taxa. Only two Greek members of the tuberum species group were included in analysis presented by Prebus (2017): Temnothorax nigriceps and Temnothorax unifasciatus and they created a separate cluster. Confirmation, if the tuberum species group as defined by us here is a natural, monophyletic group requires further studies.

Description

Karyotype

  • n = 9 (Croatia; France; Germany; Greece; Italy) (Fischer, 1987) (as Leptothorax unifasciatus).
  • n = 9, 2n = 18 (Germany; Switzerland) (Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1983) (as Leptothorax unifasciatus).

References

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