Myrmica

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Myrmica
Temporal range: 50.3–0 Ma
Eocene – Recent
Myrmica rubra
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Myrmicini
Genus: Myrmica
Latreille, 1804
Type species
Formica rubra, now Myrmica rubra
Diversity
211 species
12 fossil species
(Species Checklist)

Myrmica rubra casent0010684 profile 1.jpg

Myrmica rubra

Myrmica rubra casent0010684 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms

A common and abundant element of Holoartic ant faunas, especially at higher latitudes.

Evolutionary Relationships
Myrmicinae
Myrmicini

Manica
  (6 species)



Myrmica
  (211 species)





Pogonomyrmecini
  (3 genera)




Stenammini
  (7 genera)




Solenopsidini
  (21 genera)




Attini
  (31 genera)



Crematogastrini
  (63 genera)







Based on Ward et al., 2014

Identification

Eguchi, Bui and Yamane (2011) - The worker of Myrmica is somewhat similar to those of Aphaenogaster (see under Aphaenogaster) and Tetramorium. However, in the worker of Tetramorium, the tibial spurs of the middle and hind legs are simple or absent, and the apex of sting bears a small lamellate appendage.

Species groups have proven useful to help organize the often difficult to determine species into more manageable subsets of species. Diagnostic treatments of these groups, and list of species assigned to each group, for many Myrmica species are found here: Myrmica Species Groups. This page does not provide coverage of the North American Myrmica fauna. Some contemporary, albeit preliminary, species group work for North American Myrmica species is found here: Myrmica Species Groups of North America

Keys including this Genus

Keys to Species in this Genus

Species Group Keys

Fossil Species Key

Distribution

World distribution based on political regions. View/Edit Data
Myrmica Distribution.png Worlddistribution legend.jpg

Species richness

Species richness by country based on regional taxon lists (countries with darker colours are more species-rich). View Data

Myrmica Species Richness.png

Biology

Numerous European species are parasitized by Phengaris butterflies. Maturing caterpillars of various species move into the nests of certain Myrmica species and prey on ant brood. They are also able to solicit food from and be fed via trophallaxis.

Vietnam

Eguchi, Bui and Yamane (2011) - Myrmica species have so far been found exclusively in the mountains of Fan Si Pan above approximately 1,700 m alt. They inhabit sparse to well-developed forests and nest in rotting logs, wood fragments, under stones, in soil around tree bases, etc. Workers forage on the ground and lower vegetation.

Castes

Morphology

Worker Morphology

 • Antennal segment count 12 • Antennal club 3-4 • Palp formula 6,4 • Total dental count 6-10 • Spur formula 1 simple-pectinate, 1 simple-pectinate;0, 0 • Sting present

Male Morphology

 • Antennal segment count 12-13 • Antennal club 4-5; gradual-3 in some social parasites • Palp formula 6,4 • Total dental count 3-8 • Spur formula 1 barbulate-pectinate, 1 barbulate-pectinate; 0, 1 barbulate-pectinate; 0, 0

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • MYRMICA [Myrmicinae: Myrmicini]
    • Myrmica Latreille, 1804: 179. Type-species: Formica rubra, by subsequent designation of Latreille, 1810: 437; see also Yarrow, 1955b: 113.
    • Myrmica senior synonym of Dodecamyrmica: Francoeur, 1981: 759.
    • Myrmica senior synonym of Paramyrmica, Sifolinia (and its junior synonym Symbiomyrma), Sommimyrma: Bolton, 1988a: 3; Bolton, 2003: 221.
    • Myrmica senior synonym of †Nothomyrmica: Radchenko, Dlussky & Elmes, 2007: 1495.
  • DODECAMYRMICA [junior synonym of Myrmica]
    • Dodecamyrmica Arnol'di, 1968: 1803 [as subgenus of Myrmica]. Type-species: Myrmica arnoldii, by original designation.
    • Dodecamyrmica junior synonym of Myrmica: Francoeur, 1981: 759.
  • NOTHOMYRMICA [junior synonym of Myrmica]
    • Nothomyrmica Wheeler, W.M. 1915h: 60. Type-species: †Macromischa rudis, by original designation.
    • [†Nothomyrmica Wheeler, W.M. 1908g: 413, and Wheeler, W.M. 1910g: 167, nomina nuda.]
    • Nothomyrmica junior synonym of Myrmica: Radchenko, Dlussky & Elmes, 2007: 1495.
  • PARAMYRMICA [junior synonym of Myrmica]
    • Paramyrmica Cole, 1957a: 37. Type-species: Paramyrmica colax, by original designation.
    • Paramyrmica junior synonym of Myrmica: Bolton, 1988a: 3.
  • SIFOLINIA [junior synonym of Myrmica]
    • Sifolinia Emery, 1907: 49. Type-species: Sifolinia laurae, by monotypy.
    • Sifolinia senior synonym of Symbiomyrma: Samsinak, 1964: 156.
    • Sifolinia junior synonym of Myrmica: Bolton, 1988a: 3.
  • SOMMIMYRMA [junior synonym of Myrmica]
    • Sommimyrma Menozzi, 1925d: 25. Type-species: Sommimyrma symbiotica, by original designation.
    • Sommimyrma junior synonym of Myrmica: Bolton, 1988a: 3.
  • SYMBIOMYRMA [junior synonym of Myrmica]
    • Symbiomyrma Arnol'di, 1930c: 267. Type-species: Symbiomyrma karavajevi, by monotypy.
    • [Symbiomyrma also described as new by Arnol'di, 1933a: 41.]
    • Symbiomyrma junior synonym of Sifolinia: Samsinak, 1964: 156.
    • Symbiomyrma revived from synonymy: Seifert, 1994: 15; Seifert, 1996: 236.
    • Symbiomyrma junior synonym of Myrmica: Bolton, 1988a: 3; Bolton, 1995b: 47; Bolton, 2003: 222; Radchenko & Elmes, 2003: 219.

References

  • Arnol'di, K. V. 1970b. Review of the ant genus Myrmica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the European part of the USSR. Zool. Zh. 4 49: 1829-1844 (page 1832, Revisionary studies)
  • Arnol'di, K. V. 1976a. Ants of the genus Myrmica Latr. from Central Asia and the southern Kazakstan. Zool. Zh. 55: 547-558 (page 554, Revisionary studies)
  • Ashmead, W. H. 1905c. A skeleton of a new arrangement of the families, subfamilies, tribes and genera of the ants, or the superfamily Formicoidea. Can. Entomol. 37: 381-384 (page 383, Myrmica in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Bolton, B. 1988a. A new socially parasitic Myrmica, with a reassessment of the genus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Syst. Entomol. 13: 1-11 (page 3, Myrmica senior synonym of Paramyrmica, Sifolinia (and its junior synonym Symbiomyrma), and Sommimyrma)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 221, Myrmica in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini; Myrmica senior synonym of Paramyrmica, Sifolinia (and its junior synonym Symbiomyrma), and Sommimyrma)
  • Bondroit, J. 1918. Les fourmis de France et de Belgique. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 87: 1-174 (page 96, Myrmica in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Brown, W. L., Jr. 1973b. A comparison of the Hylean and Congo-West African rain forest ant faunas. Pp. 161-185 in: Meggers, B. J., Ayensu, E. S., Duckworth, W. D. (eds.) Tropical forest ecosystems in Africa and South America: a comparative review. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, viii + 350 pp. (page 180-185, Myrmica provisional senior synonym of Dodecamyrmica, Paramyrmica, Sifolinia, Sommimyrma, Symbiomyrma)
  • Cresson, E. T. 1887. Synopsis of the families and genera of the Hymenoptera of America, north of Mexico, together with a catalogue of the described species, and bibliography. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc., Suppl. Vol. 1887: 1-351 (page 260, Myrmica in Myrmicidae)
  • Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 108, Myrmica in Myrmicinae)
  • Eguchi, K., Bui, T.V. & Yamane, S. 2011. Generic synopsis of the Formicidae of Vietnam. Part 1 – Myrmicinae and Pseudomyrmecinae. Zootaxa 2878: 1-61. PDF
  • Emery, C. 1895l. Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. Geogr. Biol. Tiere 8: 685-778 (page 769, Myrmica in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Emery, C. 1914e. Intorno alla classificazione dei Myrmicinae. Rend. Sess. R. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna Cl. Sci. Fis. (n.s.) 18: 29-42 (page 40, Myrmica in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Emery, C. 1921c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174A:1-94 94: 1-94 + 7 (page 36, Myrmica in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Emery, C.; Forel, A. 1879. Catalogue des Formicides d'Europe. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 5: 441-481 (page 460, Myrmica in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Finzi, B. 1926. Le forme europee del genere Myrmica Latr. Primo contributo. Boll. Soc. Adriat. Sci. Nat. Trieste 29: 71-119 (page 71, Revisionary studies)
  • Forel, A. 1895b. A fauna das formigas do Brazil. Bol. Mus. Para. Hist. Nat. Ethnogr. 1: 89-139 (page 125, Myrmica in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Forel, A. 1899e. Formicidae. [part]. Biol. Cent.-Am. Hym. 3: 57-80 (page 63, Myrmica in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 241, Myrmica in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Francoeur, A. 1981c. Le groupe néarctique Myrmica lampra (Formicidae, Hymenoptera). Can. Entomol. 113: 755-759 (page 759, Myrmica senior synonym of Dodecamyrmica)
  • Jansen, Gunther and Riitta Savolainen, Kari Vepsäläinen. 2010. Phylogeny, divergence-time estimation, biogeography and social parasite–host relationships of the Holarctic ant genus Myrmica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 56: 294–304 (doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.01.029).
  • Latreille, P. A. 1804. Tableau méthodique des insectes. Pp. 129-200 in: Société de Naturalistes et d'Agriculteurs. Nouveau dictionnaire d'histoire naturelle. Tome 24. Paris: Déterville, 84 + 85 + 238 + 18 + 34 pp. (page 179, Myrmica as genus)
  • Latreille, P. A. 1810. Considérations générales sur l'ordre natural des animaux composant les classes des Crustacés, des Arachnides et des Insectes; avec un tableau méthodique de leurs genres, disposés en familles. Paris: F. Schoell, 444 pp. (page 437, Type-species, by subsequent designation)
  • Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, A. 1835 [1836]. Histoire naturelle des insectes. Hyménoptères. Tome I. Paris: Roret, 547 pp. (page 180, Myrmica in Myrmicites)
  • Mayr, G. 1855. Formicina austriaca. Beschreibung der bisher im österreichischen Kaiserstaate aufgefundenen Ameisen, nebst Hinzufügung jener in Deutschland, in der Schweiz und in Italien vorkommenden Arten. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ver. Wien 5: 273-478 (page 396, Myrmica in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Mayr, G. 1861. Die europäischen Formiciden. Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet. Wien: C. Gerolds Sohn, 80 pp. (page 62, Myrmica in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. (page 19, Myrmica in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Menozzi, C. 1939a. Formiche dell'Himalaya e del Karakorum raccolte dalla Spedizione italiana comandata da S. A. R. il Duca di Spoleto (1929). Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Milano 78: 285-345 (page 293, Revisionary studies)
  • Radchenko, A. G. 1994a. Taxonomic structure of the ant genus Myrmica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Eurasia. Report 1. Zool. Zh. 73(6 6: 39-51 (page 39, Revisionary studies)
  • Radchenko, A. G. 1994d. Identification table for ants of the genus Myrmica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from central and eastern Palearctic. Zool. Zh. 73(7-8 8: 130-145 (page 130, Revisionary studies)
  • Radchenko, A. G.; Elmes, G. W. 2003a. A taxonomic revision of the socially parasitic Myrmica ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Palaearctic region. Ann. Zool. (Warsaw) 53: 217-243 (page 219, Myrmica as senior synonym of Paramyrmica, Sifolinia, Sommimyrma, and Symbiomyrma)
  • Seifert, B. 1988b. A taxonomic revision of the Myrmica species of Europe, Asia Minor, and Caucasia (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Abh. Ber. Naturkundemus. Görlitz 62(3): 1-75 (page 1, Revisionary studies)
  • Smith, F. 1857a. Catalogue of the hymenopterous insects collected at Sarawak, Borneo; Mount Ophir, Malacca; and at Singapore, by A. R. Wallace. [part]. J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. 2: 42-88 (page 70, Myrmica in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Smith, F. 1858a. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. London: British Museum, 216 pp. (page 114, Myrmica in Poneridae, Myrmicidae)
  • Smith, F. 1871a. A catalogue of the Aculeate Hymenoptera and Ichneumonidae of India and the Eastern Archipelago. With introductory remarks by A. R. Wallace. [part]. J. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. 11: 285-348 (page 324, Myrmica in Myrmicidae)
  • Weber, N. A. 1947b. A revision of the North American ants of the genus Myrmica Latreille with a synopsis of the Palearctic species. I. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 40: 437-474 (page 437, Revisionary studies)
  • Weber, N. A. 1948a. A revision of the North American ants of the genus Myrmica Latreille with a synopsis of the Palearctic species. II. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 41: 267-308 (page 267, Revisionary studies)
  • Weber, N. A. 1950c. A revision of the North American ants of the genus Myrmica Latreille with a synopsis of the Palearctic species. III. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 43: 189-226 (page 189, Revisionary studies)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1910b. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. (page 140, Myrmica in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1915i [1914]. The ants of the Baltic Amber. Schr. Phys.-Ökon. Ges. Königsb. 55: 1-142 (page 59, Myrmica in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 660, Myrmica in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)